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Stone Carver/Stone Cutter – Methods, Transportation, & Tools Used Working with Stone


Tools & Equipment

(Also see: the “Quarry and Workship Equipment” & “Tools & Equipment Used in the Stone Shops & Mills (saws, hand tools, etc.) sections of our web site.)

Front cover of the May 1926 issue of Design Hints for Memorial Craftsmen Poppy Design Suggestions for use on cemetery monuments, "Design Hints for Memorial Craftsmen," May 1926 Design Hints for Memorial Craftsmen, March 1926, pp. 13

Front cover of the May 1926 issue of Design Hints for Memorial Craftsmen

Poppy Design Suggestions for use on cemetery monuments, Design Hints for Memorial Craftsmen, May 1926

Design Hints for Memorial Craftsmen, March 1926, pp. 13.

  • Museum of Early Trades & Crafts, Madison, New Jersey. (“The mission of the Museum of Early Trades & Crafts is to enhance the understanding and appreciation of America’s past by presenting and interpreting the history, culture and lives of ordinary people through educational programs, through preservation and stewardship of our collection, and through exhibition and demonstration of the trades and crafts practiced in New Jersey from its earliest settlement.”)
  • A Pattern Book of Tools and Household Goods, probably by W. & C. Wynn of Birmingham, from Early American Industries Association Inc., originally published circa 1820. (“A full size reproduction of an early nineteenth-century pattern book...probably issued by W. & C. Wynn of Birmingham about 1820.”)
  • Recipes for Stone Cutters - From Early Stone Cutters in Western Missouri, A  Research Study From Jones-Seelinger-Johannes Foundation, 2005, Poplar Heights Farm, 103 West Walnut  Street, Butler,   Missouri. (Brian Phillips - Executive Director, Terrie Jessup - Program Director, Patricia Jacobs - Research Assistant, Betty Newton - Research Assistant, Photography - Brian Phillips, Terrie Jessup, Melissa Phillips)
  • Stone Cutters’ Tools (From Early Stone Cutters in Western Missouri, A  Research Study From Jones-Seelinger-Johannes Foundation, 2005, Poplar Heights Farm, 103 West Walnut  Street, Butler,  Missouri. Brian Phillips - Executive Director, Terrie Jessup - Program Director, Patricia Jacobs - Research Assistant, Betty Newton - Research Assistant, Photography - Brian Phillips, Terrie Jessup, Melissa Phillips)
  • Practical Advice to Marble and Granite Workers in 1900 & Shop Necessities
  • Sculptor’s Cross – “Sculptors Change the Scale of Their Statues,” Scientific American, December 16, 1899, pp. 395.
    "Sculptor's Cross" "Scientific American" Dec. 16, 1899, p. 395

    Method of Using the “Sculptor’s Cross” in Reproducing Statuary

  • Stone Carving: Tools & Techniques of an Ancient Art, presented on Walter Arnold’s web site.
  • Stonecutting History - Freemasonry: History of Stonecutting, by Wor. Bro. Dennis Stocks, Barron Barnett Lodge.
  • The Toolemera Press & the Toolemera Blog, featuring the books, trade catalogs, photographs and ephemera of early tools, trades, crafts and industries.
  • Tools and Machinery of the Granite Industry,” by Paul Wood, in The Chronicle of the Early American Industries Association, Inc.
    • Part I. Vol. 59, No. 2, June 2006. (“Introduction: This article, the first in a series of four on granite working, deals with granite as a material, an industry, and a product and begins the description of the granite quarrying process.”)
    • Part II. Vol. 59, No. 3, September 2006. (“Introduction: This article, the second in a series of four on granite working, completes the description of the quarrying process....”)
    • Part III. Vol. 59, No. 4, December 2006. (“Granite Finishing: A small number of basic finished dimension stones made up the great majority of granite shed production. For gravestones and private....”)
    • Part IV. Vol. 60, No. 1, March 2007. (“This article is the last in a series of four on the tools and machinery of granite working....”)
  • Tools and Stones, by Welton Rotz of Sausalito, California.
  • Tools of the Trade, presented on the Stone Cutters Online web site. (The “Tools of the Trade” section is available in the “Gallery” section of the web site.)
  • Tools Used in Stone-Cutting (February 1885) The Manufacturer and Builder, Vol. 17, Issue 2, February 1885, pg. 38. (Article in digital images viewed at American Memory, Library of Congress.)
  • Tools & Equipment used in the Stone Industries in the United States & Foreign Countries up through 1939 in The Stone Industries: Dimension Stone, Crushed Stone, Geology, Technology, Distribution, Utilization, by Oliver Bowles (Supervising Engineer, Building Materials Section, United States Bureau of Mines), New York: 2nd ed., New York: McGraw-Hill, 1939.  (You can view a copy of this book on Internet Archive web site, and you can download a copy of the book to your computer at the link above.)


    This book fully covers the United States stone quarry industry up through 1939.  There is also a chapter on “Foreign Building and Ornamental Stones.”   Below is a listing of the information covered in the chapters.  (Many photographs of quarries, etc., are included in this book.)

    Part I.  General Features of the Stone Industries

    Chapter I.  Extent and Subdivision.  Extent of the Industry – Major Divisions of the Industry – Varieties of Stone Used

    Chapter II.  Minerals and Rocks.  Distinction between Rock and Stone – Relationship of Rocks to Minerals – Rock-forming Minerals – Classification of Rocks – General Distribution of Rocks in the United States.

    Chapter III.  Factors Governing Rock Utilization.  Rock Qualities on Which Use Depends – Importance of Other factors than Quality – Available Markets;  Diversification of Products  Transportation Facilities – Production Code

    Chapter IV.  Prospecting and Developing.  Prospecting – Stripping – General Methods of Operation – Bibliography

    Part II.  Dimension Stone

    Chapter V.  General Features of Dimension-Stone Industries.  Definition of Dimension Stone –   Principal Uses  Requisite Qualities of Dimension Stone –  Adaptations of Raw Materials to Use –  Complexities in Marketing –  Royalties

    Chapter VI.  Limestone.  Definition –  Origin – Physical Properties – Varieties – Qualities on Which Use Depends – Uses – Industry by States – Occurrences of Travertine – Quarry Methods –  Milling Methods – Limestone Products – Cost of Quarrying and Manufacture – Waste in Quarrying and Manufacture – Utilization of Waste – Limestone Marketing – Bibliography

    Chapter VII.  Sandstone.  Varieties – Composition – Size and Shape of Grains – Cementation – Color – Porosity – Uses – Production – Industry by States – Quarry Methods – Quarry Processes – Yard Service – Sandstone Sawmills and Finishing Plants – The Bluestone Industry – Waste in Sandstone Quarrying and Manufacture – Bibliography

    Chapter VIII.  Granite.  General Character – Mineral Composition – Chemical Composition – Physical Properties Varieties – Related Rocks – Structural Features – Uses – Distribution of deposits – Industry by States – Quarry Methods and Equipment – Milling Methods and Equipment – Market Range – Imports, Exports, and Tariffs – Prices – Bibliography

    Chapter IX.  Marble.  History – Definition – Composition – Origin and Varieties – Physical Properties – Jointing or Unsoundness – Chief Impurities of Marble – Uses – Distribution of Deposits – Production – Industry by States – Quarry Methods and Equipment – Transportation; Equipment and Operation in Mills and Shops – Waste in Quarrying and Manufacture – Marketing Marble – Imports and Exports – Tariff – Prices – Bibliography

    Chapter X.  Slate.  Definition – Origin – Mineralogical Composition – Chemical Composition – Physical Properties – Structural Features – Imperfections – Uses – History of Industry – General Distribution – Production – Industry by States – General Plan of Quarrying – Quarry Operations – Quarry Methods – Yard Transportation – Manufacture of Roofing Slate – Storage of Roofing Slate – The Art of Roofing with Slate – Manufacture of School slates – Manufacture of Mill Stock – Slate Floors – Walks, and Walls – Crushed and Pulverized Slate Products – Waste in Quarrying and Manufacturing – Tests and Specifications – Marketing – Imports and Exports – Tariff – Prices – Bibliography

    Chapter XI.  Soapstone.  Composition and Properties – History – Uses – Origin and Occurrence – Quarry Methods – Milling Processes – Marketing – Rocks Related to Soapstone – Bibliography

    Chapter XII.  Boulders as Building Materials.  Origin and Nature of Boulders – Stone Fences – The Use of Boulders in Buildings

    Chapter XIII.  Foreign Building and Ornamental Stones.  Scope of Discussion – Imports of Stone – Foreign Limestones – Foreign Sandstones – Foreign Granites – Foreign Marbles – Foreign Slates – Bibliography

    Chapter XIV.  Miscellaneous Rocks and Minerals Used for Building and Ornamental Purposes.  Agalmatolite – Alabaster – Amazonite – Catlinite – Clay – Diatomite – Tripoli and Pumice – Fluorite – Jade – Labradorite – Lapis-lazuli – Malachite and Azurite – Meerschaum – Mica Schist – Porphyry – Quartz; Snow and Ice – Sodalite – Bibliography

    Chapter XV.  Deterioration, Preservation, and Cleaning of Stonework.  Deterioration of Stone – Preservation of Stone – Cleaning Stone – Bibliography

    Part III.  Crushed and Broken Stone

    Chapter XVI.  General Features of the Crushed-Stone Industries.  History – Types and Values of Stone Used – Crushed Stone and Dimension Stone Contrasted – Uses of Crushed Stone – Competition – Markets – Transportation – Prices – Royalties – Capital Required

    Chapter XVII.  Crushed and Broken Limestone.  Types of Stone Included – Extent of Industry – Uses of Crushed and Broken Limestone – Uses for Which Physical Properties are Most Important – Uses for Which Chemical Properties are Most Important – Uses of Dolomite and High-magnesian Limestone – Industry by States – Quarry Methods and Equipment; Bibliography

    Chapter XVIII.  Crushed and Broken Stone Other Than Limestone.  General Features – Uses – General Distribution and Value – Industries by States – Quarry Method and Equipment – Marketing – Bibliography

  • Turning a Stone Column (photo ca 1920s)  The contributor of this photograph believes this was probably taken in Indiana in the 1920s.
    Turning a stone column in Indiana circa 1920s

    Turning a stone column in Indiana circa 1920s

  • Unforbidden Geology: The not so hidden history of Man from the often overlooked geologic perspective, presented by Archae Solenhofen. (Below are just two of the topics covered on this web site.)

Transportation


Methods and Miscellaneous:


Articles Relating to Techniques, Designs, & Emblems Used by Stone Carvers

“Grouped on this page are some of the more important emblems of the American Army.” ("Symbols of Service," Vermont Marble Co., 1919) “This page is given up to the specialty marks of the Navy, with one space set apart for the sign of the Marine Corps.” ("Symbols of Service," Vermont Marble Co., 1919)

“Grouped on this page are some of the more important emblems of the American Army.” (pp. 36)

“This page is given up to the specialty marks of the Navy, with one space set apart for the sign of the Marine Corps.” (pp. 37)


Stone Carver Patterns & Designs

Flower Designs from “Monumental Design: The Language of The Flowers” (1927) Daffodil Patterns in “Monumental Drawing and Lettering: The Daffodil in Applied Ornament” (1926) Daisy Patterns in “Monumental Drawing and Lettering: The Daisy in Applied Ornament” (1926)

Flower Designs from “Monumental Design: The Language of The Flowers,” (PDF) by Dan B. Haslam, in Design Hints For Memorial Craftsmen Magazine, July 1927, pp. 11 (includes sketches of: lily of the valley, wild rose, blue bell, Easter lily, star of Bethlehem, passion flower, violets, poppy, daffodil, and daisy)

Daffodil Patterns in “Monumental Drawing and Lettering: The Daffodil in Applied Ornament,”(PDF) by Dan B. Haslam, in Design Hints For Memorial Craftsmen Magazine, July 1926, pp. 11

Daisy Patterns in “Monumental Drawing and Lettering: The Daisy in Applied Ornament,” (PDF) by Dan B. Haslam, in Design Hints For Memorial Craftsmen Magazine, September 1926, pp. 11

 
Front cover of "Sources of Memorial Ornamentation" Colonial Ornamentation Patterns in "Sources of Memorial Ornamentation" Greek Ornamentation Patterns in "Sources of Memorial Ornamentation"

Front cover of Sources of Memorial Ornamentation (PDF)

Colonial Ornamentation Patterns in Sources of Memorial Ornamentation

Greek Ornamentation Patterns in Sources of Memorial Ornamentation

Roman Ornamentation Patterns in "Sources of Memorial Ornamentation" Celtic Ornamentation Patterns in "Sources of Memorial Ornamentation" Gothic Ornamentation Patterns in "Sources of Memorial Ornamentation"

Roman Ornamentation Patterns in Sources of Memorial Ornamentation

Celtic Ornamentation Patterns in Sources of Memorial Ornamentation

Gothic Ornamentation Patterns in Sources of Memorial Ornamentation

Renaissance Ornamentation Patterns in "Sources of Memorial Ornamentation" Egyptian Ornamentation Patters in "Sources of Memorial Ornamentation" Egyptian Patterns from “Historic Ornament and Modern Design” (1929)

Renaissance Ornamentation Patterns in Sources of Memorial Ornamentation (PDF)

Egyptian Ornamentation Patters in Sources of Memorial Ornamentation (PDF)

Egyptian Patterns from “Historic Ornament and Modern Design,” (PDF) by Dan B. Haslam, in Design Hints For Memorial Craftsmen Magazine, Vol. 5, No. 10, April 1929, pp. 11

  • Page of Emblems from Lasting Memorials of Artistic Beauty, Design Book No. 108 (pdf), Universal Monument Company, Atlanta, Georgia, 1920’s.  (Note, this pdf document is very large.)
    Page of Emblems from Lasting Memorials of Artistic Beauty, Design Book No. 108, 1920s (Included are: Woodmen of the World and others.) Page of Emblems from Lasting Memorials of Artistic Beauty, Design Book No. 108, 1920s

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