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Quarry & Workshop Equipment

(Also see: the Stone Carver “Tools & Equipment,” “From Quarry to Cemetery Monuments – Tools & Equipment Used in the Stone Shops & Mills (saws, hand tools, etc.), and “Quarrying Methods” sections of our web site.)

 

Seeking information about the quarry drag saw in the photographs below.

Lynn Northrop and her husband, and Wayne Northrop are seeking information on the quarry drag saw in the photographs below. (Lynn and Wayne Northrop own and operate the Raymond Museum located at Raymond, Madera County, California. You can read more about the Raymond Museum on the online article, “Raymond Museum now an historical place of interest,” by Elizabeth Gabriel, May 30, 2008, on the Sierra Star web site.)

The stone saw shown in the photographs below was donated by Mark Ward, owner of Mark Ward Truckin; and it was recently moved and installed by local volunteers as a new exhibit at the Raymond Museum (August 2010).

If you have any knowledge of this saw, please contact Lynn and Wayne Northrop at the Raymond Museum. Below is Lynn’s brief history of the saw:

“It was possibly a marble cutting saw moved from San Francisco in the 1890s or early 1900s. It sat at a small quarry near Bates Station, an old Stagecoach stop near the Madera Quarry about 12 miles from Raymond. A man named Carl Taylor ran it in the 1930s and then walked away with the blade still stuck in a slab of granite. The iron cutting blades run vertically instead of horizontally and the screw system is still intact on top lowering the blades as the water and shot cut through the slabs. We are trying to date the saw style and find out where it may have come from and if there are others left around California or the country (USA).”

Quarry / stone saw in Bates quarry in 1993, Madera County, California Quarry / stone saw in Bates quarry in 2010, Madera County, California

Quarry / stone saw in Bates quarry in 1993

Stone saw set up in yard in 2010

  • Air Compressor (circa 1925) from The Story of the Rock of Ages, Boutwell, Milne & Varnum Company, Montpelier, Vermont, written and compiled by Athol R. Bell, 1925.
    Tremendous Power. The Rock of Ages air compressor is capable of delivering 3,700 cubic feet of air per minute.” “Tremendous Power. The Rock of Ages air compressor is capable of delivering 3,700 cubic feet of air per minute” in The Story of the Rock of Ages, 1925
  • "Air Power Economy in a Granite Quarry," from Mine and Quarry Magazine, Vol. III. No. 1, June 1908, Sullivan Machinery Co., Publisher, Chicago, Illinois. (The Rockport Granite Company of Rockport, Massachusetts, is discussed.)
  • An Electrically-Operated Tool for Dressing and Carving Stone, etc. (April 1893) The Manufacturer and Builder, Vol. 25, Issue 4, April 1893, pg. 87. (Article in digital images viewed at American Memory, Library of Congress.)
  • An English Stone-Working Machine (September 1891) The Manufacturer and Builder, Vol. 23, Issue 9, September 1891, pg. 207. (The article includes a sketch of this machine.) (Article in digital images viewed at American Memory, Library of Congress.)
  • Application of the Electric Light at the Angers (France) Slate Quarries (January 1885) The Manufacturer and Builder, Vol. 17, Issue 1, January 1885, pgs. 12-13. (Article in digital images viewed at American Memory, Library of Congress.)
  • Block Making Machine (YouTube video)  McGirren Engineering 
  • Bridge Milling Machine  (YouTube Video)
  • Brunner & Lay: Manufacturers of Marble, Stone, Granite and Bricklayers' Tools, Stone Jacks, Derricks, and Contractors' Supplies (Catalog). Chicago, Illinois. (You can also use this Brunner and Lay Tool Catalog PDF link to view the booklet in PDF format.)
  • Burr Stones (April 1876) The Manufacturer and Builder, Vol. 8, Issue 4, April 1876, pgs. 82-83. (Article in digital images viewed at American Memory, Library of Congress.)
  • "Carl Meyer Celebrates 100th Anniversary with First Diamond Gang Saw for Granite," Dimensional Stone, Vol. 6, No. 8, Anon., pp. 56-58, 1990b.
  • Carving Stone by Electricity (February 1893) The Manufacturer and Builder, Vol. 25, Issue 2, February 1893, pg. 39. (Text of article in digital images viewed at American Memory, Library of Congress.)
  • Channeling Machine (circa March 1873) – “Improved Stone Quarrying Machine,” in Scientific American, Vol. XXVIII, No. 13, March 29, 1873, pp. 191.
    “Wardwell’s Stone Quarrying Machine,” "Scientific American," March 29, 1873, p. 191

    “Wardwell’s Stone Quarrying Machine”

  • Channeling Machine (Electric) (circa 1926) in “The Romance of Verde Antique,” by Basil B. Walsh, in The Vermonter, Vol. 31, No. 9, 1926, pp. 130-136.
    “On the Floor of the Roxbury Quarry” Vermont “Verde Antique Quarry, Roxbury, Vermont, operated by the Vermont Marble Company”

    “On the Floor of the Roxbury Quarry”

    “Verde Antique Quarry, Roxbury, Vermont, operated by the Vermont Marble Company”

  • Chisel & Hammer used in the Penrhyn Slate Quarries in North Wales circa 1858 – from The Penrhyn Slate Quarries in North Wales circa 1858, in The Illustrated London News, April 17, 1858, pp. 392-393.
    Quarryman at work in one of the Penrhyn slate quarries circa 1858 Quarryman at work in one of the Penrhyn slate quarries, "The Illustrated London News," April 17, 1858.
  • Compressed Air Power Transmission Plant – “A Modern Compressed Air Power Transmission Plant (at the Cleveland Stone Company’s Gray Canon Sandstone Quarry located near North Amherst, Ohio), in The Engineering Record, Vol. 50, No. 2, July 9, 1904.
    “The Gray Canon Sandstone Quarry” of the Cleveland Stone Company, located near North Amerherst, Ohio (circa 1904) “Boiler Plant in Power Station of Cleveland Stone Company” (circa 1904)

    “The Gray Canon Sandstone Quarry” of the Cleveland Stone Company, located near North Amherst, Ohio (circa 1904)

    “Boiler Plant in Power Station of Cleveland Stone Company” (circa 1904)

    “Air Compressors in Power Plant of Cleveland Stone Company” “Diagram of Air Pipe Distribution System for Gray Canon Quarry, Cleveland Stone Company”

    “Air Compressors in Power Plant of Cleveland Stone Company”
    (circa 1904)

    “Diagram of Air Pipe Distribution System for Gray Canon Quarry, Cleveland Stone Company”
    (circa 1904)

  • The Concord Stone-Polishing Machine (August 1890) The Manufacture and Builder, Vol. 22, Issue 8, August 1890, pg. 177. (The article includes a sketch of the machine; text of article in digital images viewed at American Memory, Library of Congress.)
  • Conveyor Belt in stone yard in Arizona (Photograph) (Stone In Arizona, by Roland C. Townsend, Consulting Geologist, Phoenix, Arizona, 1961, pp. 13.

    The photograph caption on pp. 13 states:   “Conveyor from stone cutting house.”

  • Crane – The Fifty Ton Crane of the Lerouville Quarries,” in Scientific American Supplement, August 12, 1893.
    “A fifty ton crane operating in the Lerouville Quarries.” (France), "Scientific American Supplement," August 12, 1893

    “A fifty ton crane operating in the Lerouville Quarries.”
    (France, circa 1893)

  • Crane – Traveling Crane – “Steam Stone Works (at the Barr, Thaw & Fraser, Hoboken, New Jersey, Plant), in Scientific American, Vol. LXVI, No. 6, New York, February 6, 1892, pp. 89.
    “Illustrations of Stone Cutting, Sawing, and Polishing,” from “Steam Stone Works,” Scientific American, Feb. 6, 1892

    “Illustrations of Stone Cutting, Sawing, and Polishing,” from “Steam Stone Works,” Scientific American, Feb. 6, 1892

  • The Crump and Brereton Rotary Quarrier and Stone Shaper (October 1884) (The article includes a sketch: "The Crump and Brereton Rotary Quarrier and Stone Shaper.") The Manufacturer and Builder, Vol. 16, Issue 10, October 1884, pg. 229. (Article in digital images viewed at American Memory, Library of Congress.)
  • "The Crump and Brereton Rotary Quarrier and Stone Shaper" (December 1884) Quarrying Notes – The Manufacturer and Builder, Vol. 16, Issue 12, December 1884, pgs. 275-276. (text and diagram of the machinery) (Article in digital images viewed at American Memory, Library of Congress.)
  • Derrick in Use in a Quarry  (YouTube video)
  • Derricks – “The First Derrick,” from Stone Magazine, March 1925, Vol. XLVI, No. 3, pp. 169.

    “‘Give me a place to stand and I will move the earth.’” – Archimedes.

    “Hiero, king of Syracuse, learning of Archimedes’ remark, is recorded in history as having requested a demonstration to illustrate his contention that a very great weight could be lifted by a small force. Archimedes, who had been experimenting with a crude form of block and tackle appeared before the king and performed the same experiment that first had caused him to give voice to his claim. Whether he lifted a great block of stone or a tree trunk, history is not clear, but the fact remains that Archimedes was the pioneer in the field of cranes and derricks. Previous to the time of Archimedes the lifting and moving of huge stones was chiefly a question of man power and greased ways. Archytias, a deciple (sic) of Pythagoras, invented the single pulley and it was through a multiplication of pulleys that Archimedes somewhat later demonstrated his theory of the weight lifting. It might be said, in passing, that it was Archimedes, who upon discovering that his body displaced water, ran from his bath crying out the news of his discovery. The Early Greeks and Romans were well acquainted with the block and tackle, while during the Middle Ages it was used extensively to lift heavy loads. Working sketches of hoists, blocks and tackle and derricks in many forms are contained in the sketchbooks of Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519), the Florentine artist and architect, as well as engineer, who exercised such a pronounced influence upon the art and architecture of his time. But it was not until the age of steam that hoists and derricks really came into their own and began to be perfected in the form that we know them today. It was but a step to make them applicable to electric as well as steam power and it is with the latter that the stone industry is concerned, although quarries still use steam derricks to a great extent, due to the remoteness of many of their deposits from central electric energy plants. Thus from the first locomotive cranes built in England about 1850 or perhaps a little later, crane and derrick manufacturers have sought to meet the requirements of every industry. In small stone yards and mills hand cranes are still in use, but in the larger plants all stone is moved by means of the overhead electric traveling cranes, which are more than mere cranes, but rather suspension bridges of great lifting power and freedom of motion that make it possible to employ them in almost every conceivable manner for lifting and shifting of both the quarry blocks and the finished materials. They are as indispensable to the mill owner as are the pneumatic tools to the carver and the sculptor.”

  • Derrick from The Story of the Rock of Ages, Boutwell, Milne & Varnum Company, Montpelier, Vermont, written and compiled by Athol R. Bell, 1925.
    “Quarry No. 1 as the photographer saw it in 1890. Now (circa 1925) it is a yawning chasm and the 82-ft. derrick mast which the prophets had cast for a white elephant role has yielded its place to one that is more than 100 feet high.” “Quarry No. 1 as the photographer saw it in 1890. Now (circa 1925) it is a yawning chasm and the 82-ft. derrick mast which the prophets had cast for a white elephant role has yielded its place to one that is more than 100 feet high.” (The Story of the Rock of Ages," Boutwell, Milne & Varnum Co., VT, 1925)
  • Diamond Cutting MachineThe Marble Industry of Vermont, Free Press Printing Co., Burlington, Vermont, No date of publication – early 1920s
    “Cutting Marble with Diamonds,” "The Marble Industry of Vermont," 1920s

    “Cutting Marble with Diamonds”

    “The rim of this saw contains 125 diamonds.  They are embedded in steel, and when the exposed corner becomes dull the stone is broken out and given a new setting.  A saw of this kind, if given plenty of water, will cut its way through the hardest marble.”

  • Dimension Stone Quarrying – The Blasting Process (April 1893) The Manufacturer and Builder, Vol. 25, Issue 4, April 1893, pg. 86. (Text of article in digital images viewed at American Memory, Library of Congress.)
  • Double-Gang Channeling Machine for Sandstone (January 1889) The Manufacturer and Builder, Vol. 21, Issue 1, January 1889, pg. 13. (The article includes a sketch: "The Wardwell Double-Gang Quarrying Machine for Grit Sandstone.") (Article in digital images viewed at American Memory, Library of Congress.)
  • Double Head Planer and Moulding Machine,” in The Monumental News, April 1895.
  • Double Head Planer and Moulding Machine (1895)

    Double Head Planer and Moulding Machine (1895)

  • Drilling Machine – “Improved Machine for Drilling Stone,” in Scientific American, A weekly journal of practical information, art, science, mechanics, chemistry, and manufacturers, New York, June 20, 1868.
    "Southard & Hobson’s Stone Drilling Machine," "Scientific American," June 20, 1868

    “Southard & Hobson’s Stone Drilling Machine”

  • An Electric Drill for Quarry Work (June 1893) (The article includes three sketches; one is "General Electric Company's Electric Percussion Drill.") The Manufacturer and Builder, Vol. 25, Issue 6, June 1893, pg. 134. (Text of article in digital images viewed at American Memory, Library of Congress.)
  • An Electrically-Operated Tool for Dressing and Carving Stone, etc. (April 1893) The Manufacturer and Builder, Vol. 25, Issue 4, April 1893, pg. 87. (Text of article in digital images viewed at American Memory, Library of Congress.)
  • Equipment & Tools used in Granite Quarrying – “Granite extraction and processing”  GaGranite.com  (YouTube video)
  • The Granite City Polishing Machine (March 1892) The Manufacturer and Builder, Vol. 24, Issue 3, March 1892, pg. 63. (Article in digital images viewed at American Memory, Library of Congress.)
  • Grinding Machine for stone in operation  (YouTube video)
  • Grindstones (December 1888) The Manufacturer and Builder, Vol. 20, Issue 12, December 1888, pg. 275. (Article in digital images viewed at American Memory, Library of Congress.)
  • Grindstones – Their Actual and Possible Uses,” Scientific American, June 20, 1868.
  • Guillotine Stone Cutter in Sandstone Quarry  (Photographs)  (Stone In Arizona, by Roland C. Townsend, Consulting Geologist, Phoenix, Arizona, 1961, pp. 13)

    The photograph caption on pp. 13 states:  “Guillotine stone cutter in quarry of Coconino sandstone.”

    The photograph caption on pp. 13 states:  “Close view of guillotine cutting Coconino sandstone.”

  • Hacking Machine (guillotine-like stone cutting machine in operation)  (YouTube video)
  • Hammers - the Hammer Museum in Haines, Alaska, presented by Dave Pahl. (Includes a virtual tour of the museum hammers.)
  • Hand carving flowers on marble memorial with a power tool  (The following photograph is from one of the Vermont Marble Company, World’s Largest Marble Exhibit, Proctor, Vermont Postcard Folders (pdf)  Click on the pdf link in the preceding sentence if you want to see the rest of the postcard photographs in the folder.)
    “Hand carving flowers on marble memorial” Vermont Marble Co. (postcard photo)

    Hand carving flowers on marble memorial

  • Hoisting Stone in Quarries, The Manufacturer and Builder, Vol. 2, Issue 7, July 1870, pp. 198.
  • Horses, Oxen and Granite,” (in Barre, Vermont), (online article) by Paul Wood, January 7, 2008, in the Barre Montpelier Times Argus.

    The time period covered in this article is during the early 1800s.

    Key words in article: Adamant Quarries, Montpelier, Vermont; block and tackle; boom derrick; clog chains; John Crouse of Syracuse, New York; Fayette Cutler, Barre, Vermont; double runner sleds; freight Tariffs; Joseph Glidden, Mark Glidden;granite quarries; granite sheds; horse sweep; Jones Brothers, Vermont; “New Hampshire Horses,” railroads; ramp, rollers; single-drum winch; skids; spur track; St. John the Devine Cathedral, New York City; Stanford Mausoleum; wagon pulled by horses and oxen teams, wagons.

  • How Granite Columns are Polished (March 1884) The Manufacturer and Builder, Vol. 16, Issue 3, March 1884, pgs. 59-60. (Article in digital images viewed at American Memory, Library of Congress.)
  • How Granite is Polished (Granite Pillars) (May 1878) The Manufacturer and Builder, Vol. 10, Issue 5, May 1878, pgs. 102-103. (Article in digital images viewed at American Memory, Library of Congress.)
  • Improved Hoisting Engine for Quarrying (November 1884) (The article includes three views of "Improved Hoisting Engine For Quarrying.") The Manufacturer and Builder, Vol. 16, Issue 11, November 1884, pgs. 250-251. (Article in digital images viewed at American Memory, Library of Congress.)
  • Improved Hoisting Engines for Quarry Work (February 1886) (The article includes two sketches with two views of the: "Lidgerwood Single-Cylinder Hoisting Machine (without boiler)." The Manufacturer and Builder, Vol. 18, Issue 2, February 1886, pgs. 35-36. (Article in digital images viewed at American Memory, Library of Congress.)
  • Improved Hoisting Engine Designed for Quarry Use (May 1888) (The article includes a sketch of "Improved Engine for Quarry Use.") The Manufacturer and Builder, Vol. 20, Issue 5, May 1888, pg. 108. (Article in digital images viewed at American Memory, Library of Congress.)
  • Improved Hoisting Engine for Quarry Service (May 1892) (The page includes a sketch of "Improved Hoisting Quarry Engine for Quarry Service.") The Manufacturer and Builder, Vol. 24, Issue 5, May 1892, pg. 110. (Article in digital images viewed at American Memory, Library of Congress.)
  • Improved Quarrying Machinery (March 1885) (The article includes a sketch of "Rand's 'Little Giant' Rock Drill.") The Manufacturer and Builder, Vol. 17, Issue 3, March 1885, pgs. 59-60. (Article in digital images viewed at American Memory, Library of Congress.)
  • Improved Quarrying Machinery (January 1887) The Manufacturer and Builder, Vol. 19, Issue 1, January 1887, pg. 11. (includes picture of a quarryman using an "improved quarrying frame") (Article in digital images viewed at American Memory, Library of Congress.)
  • The Jeffrey Stone Elevator (July 1894) The Manufacturer and Builder, Vol. 26, Issue 7, July 1894, pg. 159. (Article in digital images viewed at American Memory, Library of Congress.)
  • The Knox Blasting System – “Modern Methods of Quarrying,” in Scientific American Supplement, Vol. XXXII, No. 832, New York, December 12, 1891.
Banner from the December 12, 1891, issue of Scientific American Supplement, No. 832 “Fig 3 is a round hole drilled either by hand or otherwise, preferably otherwise, because an important point is to get it round. Fig. 4 is the improved form of hole, and this is made by inserting a reamer, Figs. 5 and 6, into the hole in the line of the proposed fracture, thus cutting two V-shaped grooves into the walls of the hole.” (from the December 12, 1891, issue of Scientific American Supplement) “The usual method of charging and tamping a hole in using the new system is shown in Fig. 8. The charge of powder is shown at C, the air space at B and the tamping at A. Fig. 9 is a special hole for use in thin beds of rock” (from the December 12, 1891, issue of Scientific American Supplement)

Banner from the December 12, 1891, issue of Scientific American Supplement, No. 832

“Fig 3 is a round hole drilled either by hand or otherwise, preferably otherwise, because an important point is to get it round.  Fig. 4 is the improved form of hole, and this is made by inserting a reamer, Figs. 5 and 6, into the hole in the line of the proposed fracture, thus cutting two V-shaped grooves into the walls of the hole.”  (from the December 12, 1891, issue of Scientific American Supplement)

“The usual method of charging and tamping a hole in using the new system is shown in Fig. 8.  The charge of powder is shown at C, the air space at B and the tamping at A.  Fig. 9 is a special hole for use in thin beds of rock” (from the December 12, 1891, issue of Scientific American Supplement)

    • The Knox System of Quarrying,” by William L. Saunders, in Scientific American, Vol. XXXIII, No. 836, New York, January 9, 1892, pp. 13356-13357
  • A Large Quarry Hoisting Engine (May 1893) (This article includes a sketch of a "Ten-Ton Quarry Hoisting Engine, Built by J. S. Mundy of Newark, N. J.") The Manufacturer and Builder, Vol. 25, Issue 5, May 1893, pg. 111. (Article in digital images viewed at American Memory, Library of Congress.)
  • Lettering marble war memorial using hand tool  (The following photograph is from one of the Vermont Marble Company, World’s Largest Marble Exhibit, Proctor, Vermont Postcard Folders (pdf)  Click on the pdf link in the preceding sentence if you want to see the rest of the postcard photographs in the folder.)
    “Lettering marble war memorial by hand” Vermont Marble Co. (postcard photo)

    Lettering marble war memorial by hand

  • The Lewis – The lewis is a tool that is used by a freemason to raise large stones and set them in the desired location. Visit this web site for a thorough description and diagram of the lewis. The web site is presented by Pietre-Stones Review of Freemasonry.
  • Manufacturer of Grindstones (June 1894) The Manufacturer and Builder, Vol. 26, Issue 6, June 1894, pg. 135. (The article includes a sketch of "Turning Large Grindstones - Quarry No. 2 West View, Ohio"; article in digital images viewed at American Memory, Library of Congress.)
  • Marble Channeling MachineThe Marble Industry of Vermont, Free Press Printing Co., Burlington, Vermont, No date of publication – early 1920s

    “The electric channeling machine runs on a movable track which is placed on the floor of the quarry.  By continual pounding on the marble, this machine sinks a narrow groove to a depth of several feet, making it possible to take out blocks of uniform shape and size.  The cutting is done by five chisel-pointed drills, clamped together in a row and attached to the end of a steel bar.”

    “Cutting Marble Block from Floor of Quarry,” in "The Marble Industry of Vermont," early 1920s

    “Cutting Marble Block from Floor of Quarry”

  • The McDonald Stone Dressing Machine (January 1885) (The article includes a sketch of the machine.) The Manufacturer and Builder, Vol. 17, Issue 1, January 1885, pg. 12. (Article in digital images viewed at American Memory, Library of Congress.)
  • Memorializing the Civil War Dead:  Modernity and Corruption under the Grant Administration” (pdf), by Bruce S. Elliott, in Markers XXVI, Association for Gravestone Studies, 2011, pp. 15-55.  (Reprinted with permission of the Association for Gravestone Studies.)

    This article describes the need to mass produce the Civil War headstones rather than by individual stone carvers. Contracts for the headstones and bases were given out to several different quarries and companies in Vermont, Massachusetts, New York, Pennsylvania, Kansas, and Tennessee. The need for large numbers of markers also increased the use of the sandblasting process to speed up carving the names on the stones. Both mass production the sandblasting process caused great changes in the work of the stone carvers, which led to demands by the stone workers’ unions, such as the eight-hour work day.)

  • Modern Explosives (March 1894) The Manufacturer and Builder, Vol. 26, Issue 3, March 1894, pg. 62. (Article in digital images viewed at American Memory, Library of Congress.)
  • Modern Stone Quarrying - The Channeling Process (October 1884) The Manufacturer and Builder, Vol. 16, Issue 10, October 1884, pgs. 230-231. (Article in digital images viewed at American Memory, Library of Congress.)
  • Moulding Machine – “Steam Stone Works (at the Barr, Thaw & Fraser, Hoboken, New Jersey, Plant), in Scientific American, Vol. LXVI, No. 6, New York, February 6, 1892, pp. 89.

    “Illustrations of Stone Cutting, Sawing, and Polishing,” from “Steam Stone Works,” Scientific American, Feb. 6, 1892

    “Illustrations of Stone Cutting, Sawing, and Polishing,” from “Steam Stone Works,” Scientific American, Feb. 6, 1892

  • A New ‘Duplex’ Channeler for Oölitic Limestone,” by C. J. Levey, from Mine and Quarry Magazine, Sullivan Machinery Co., Publisher, Chicago, Illinois, Vol. VII. No. 2, January, 1913.
  • Planing marble flutes in large column  (The following photograph is from one of the Vermont Marble Company, World’s Largest Marble Exhibit, Proctor, Vermont Postcard Folders (pdf)  Click on the pdf link in the preceding sentence if you want to see the rest of the postcard photographs in the folder.)
    “Planing flutes in large column,” Vermont Marble Co. (postcard photo)

    Planing flutes in large column

  • Plug Drill “Type 24” made by the Livingston Manufacturing Co. Advertisement (from The Monumental News, November 1929, pp. 564)
    Livingston Manufacturing Co., “Type 24” Plug Drill, Rockland Maine, November 1929 Advertisement Livingston Manufacturing Co., “Type 24” Plug Drill, Rockland Maine, Nov. 1929 Ad
  • Polishing Granite  (YouTube video)
  • Polishing MarbleThe Marble Industry of Vermont, Free Press Printing Co., Burlington, Vermont, No date of publication – early 1920s. Polishing marble is also discussed in the 1926 article, “The Romance of Verde Antique,” by Basil B. Walsh, in The Vermonter, Vol. 31, No. 9, 1926, pp. 132. (The photograph below is shown in both articles.)

    “The work is all done by a small, whirling disk which is moved about over the watered surface of the stone.  The first plate used is coated with carborundum, the second with aloxite, and the third with hone.  To complete the process, the plat is covered with felt and applied in conjunction with polishing putty.”

    “Polishing Marble,” from "The Marble Industry of Vermont," early 1920s

    Polishing Marble

  • Polishing Machine for Stone  (YouTube video)
  • Polishing Marble (Recipes) (October 1889) The Manufacturer and Builder, Vol. 21, Issue 10, October 1889, pgs. 233-234. (Article in digital images viewed at American Memory, Library of Congress.)
  • Polishing marble slab (The following photograph is from one of the Vermont Marble Company, World’s Largest Marble Exhibit, Proctor, Vermont Postcard Folders (pdf)  Click on the pdf link in the preceding sentence if you want to see the rest of the postcard photographs in the folder.)
    “Polishing marble slab - Center Rutland, Vermont” (postcard photo)

    Polishing marble slab - Center Rutland, Vermont”

  • Power Rock Drills & Compressors – “The Manufacture of Power Drills for Mining, Excavating, Etc.,” Scientific American, Vol. XLIII, No. 26, (American Industries. – No. 63), New York, December 25, 1880, pp. 401-402.
    Rock Drills and Their Uses ("Scientific American" 1880) Rock drill with column ("Scientific American" 1880) Rand rock drill ("Scientific American" 1880)

    Rock Drills and Their Uses

    Rock drill with column

    The Rand Rock Drill

    Drill mounted for quarry work ("Scientific American" 1880) Quarry machine ("Scientific American" 1880)

    Drill mounted for quarry work

    Quarry Machine

  • The Pulsometer as a Quarry Pump (January 1885) (The article presents views of "The New Pulsometer" and a view of "The New Pulsometer Applied to Quarry Work.") The Manufacturer and Builder, Vol. 17, Issue 1, January 1885, pgs. 13-14. (Article in digital images viewed at American Memory, Library of Congress.)
  • Quarry and Workshop Equipment and Tools circa 1907 – “The Marble Quarries of Carrara,” by Day Allen Willey, in Scientific American, Vol. XCVII, No. 20, New York, November 16, 1907, pp. 353, 361-362.
“Marble Crags at Carrara” (Italy, ca. 1907) “Miners making the electrical connections for blasting a monster block of Carrara marble” (Italy, ca. 1907) “Block marked for cutting”

“Marble Crags at Carrara”

“Miners making the electrical connections for blasting a monster block of Carrara marble”

“Block marked for cutting”

“White Marble Quarry Entrance” “Where Carrara sculptors learn their art”  (Carrara, Italy, ca. 1907) “Making the gigantic statues”  (Carrara, Italy, ca. 1907)

“White Marble Quarry Entrance”

“Where Carrara sculptors learn their art”

“Making the gigantic statues”

“Slab cutting saws operated by steam and water power”   (Italy, ca. 1907) “Steam power marble planers”  (Italy, ca. 1907)

“Slab cutting saws operated by steam and water power”

“Steam power marble planers”

  • Quarry Tools, presented on the Stones Structures of Northeastern United States web site.
  • Quarry Workers’ Tools (photograph/section) of “How to Tour the Marble Quarries of Carrara,” by James Martin, on his Guide to Europe Travel web site.
  • Quarrying and Working Marble (October 1893) The Manufacturer and Builder, Vol. 25, Issue 10, October 1893, pg. 230. (Text of article in digital images viewed at American Memory, Library of Congress.)
  • Quarring Equipment & Tools in the Stone Industries in the United States & Foreign Countries up through 1939 in The Stone Industries: Dimension Stone, Crushed Stone, Geology, Technology, Distribution, Utilization, by Oliver Bowles (Supervising Engineer, Building Materials Section, United States Bureau of Mines), New York: 2nd ed., New York: McGraw-Hill, 1939.  (You can view a copy of this book on Internet Archive web site, and you can download a copy of the book to your computer at the link above.)

    This book fully covers the United States stone quarry industry up through 1939.  There is also a chapter on “Foreign Building and Ornamental Stones.”   Below is a listing of the information covered in the chapters.  (Many photographs of quarries, etc., are included in this book.)

    Part I.  General Features of the Stone Industries

    Chapter I.  Extent and Subdivision.  Extent of the Industry – Major Divisions of the Industry – Varieties of Stone Used

    Chapter II.  Minerals and Rocks.  Distinction between Rock and Stone – Relationship of Rocks to Minerals – Rock-forming Minerals – Classification of Rocks – General Distribution of Rocks in the United States.

    Chapter III.  Factors Governing Rock Utilization.  Rock Qualities on Which Use Depends – Importance of Other factors than Quality – Available Markets;  Diversification of Products  Transportation Facilities – Production Code

    Chapter IV.  Prospecting and Developing.  Prospecting – Stripping – General Methods of Operation – Bibliography

    Part II.  Dimension Stone

    Chapter V.  General Features of Dimension-Stone Industries.  Definition of Dimension Stone –   Principal Uses  Requisite Qualities of Dimension Stone –  Adaptations of Raw Materials to Use –  Complexities in Marketing –  Royalties

    Chapter VI.  Limestone.  Definition –  Origin – Physical Properties – Varieties – Qualities on Which Use Depends – Uses – Industry by States – Occurrences of Travertine – Quarry Methods –  Milling Methods – Limestone Products – Cost of Quarrying and Manufacture – Waste in Quarrying and Manufacture – Utilization of Waste – Limestone Marketing – Bibliography

    Chapter VII.  Sandstone.  Varieties – Composition – Size and Shape of Grains – Cementation – Color – Porosity – Uses – Production – Industry by States – Quarry Methods – Quarry Processes – Yard Service – Sandstone Sawmills and Finishing Plants – The Bluestone Industry – Waste in Sandstone Quarrying and Manufacture – Bibliography

    Chapter VIII.  Granite.  General Character – Mineral Composition – Chemical Composition – Physical Properties Varieties – Related Rocks – Structural Features – Uses – Distribution of deposits – Industry by States – Quarry Methods and Equipment – Milling Methods and Equipment – Market Range – Imports, Exports, and Tariffs – Prices – Bibliography

    Chapter IX.  Marble.  History – Definition – Composition – Origin and Varieties – Physical Properties – Jointing or Unsoundness – Chief Impurities of Marble – Uses – Distribution of Deposits – Production – Industry by States – Quarry Methods and Equipment – Transportation; Equipment and Operation in Mills and Shops – Waste in Quarrying and Manufacture – Marketing Marble – Imports and Exports – Tariff – Prices – Bibliography

    Chapter X.  Slate.  Definition – Origin – Mineralogical Composition – Chemical Composition – Physical Properties – Structural Features – Imperfections – Uses – History of Industry – General Distribution – Production – Industry by States – General Plan of Quarrying – Quarry Operations – Quarry Methods – Yard Transportation – Manufacture of Roofing Slate – Storage of Roofing Slate – The Art of Roofing with Slate – Manufacture of School slates – Manufacture of Mill Stock – Slate Floors – Walks, and Walls – Crushed and Pulverized Slate Products – Waste in Quarrying and Manufacturing – Tests and Specifications – Marketing – Imports and Exports – Tariff – Prices – Bibliography

    Chapter XI.  Soapstone.  Composition and Properties – History – Uses – Origin and Occurrence – Quarry Methods – Milling Processes – Marketing – Rocks Related to Soapstone – Bibliography

    Chapter XII.  Boulders as Building Materials.  Origin and Nature of Boulders – Stone Fences – The Use of Boulders in Buildings

    Chapter XIII.  Foreign Building and Ornamental Stones.  Scope of Discussion – Imports of Stone – Foreign Limestones – Foreign Sandstones – Foreign Granites – Foreign Marbles – Foreign Slates – Bibliography

    Chapter XIV.  Miscellaneous Rocks and Minerals Used for Building and Ornamental Purposes.  Agalmatolite – Alabaster – Amazonite – Catlinite – Clay – Diatomite – Tripoli and Pumice – Fluorite – Jade – Labradorite – Lapis-lazuli – Malachite and Azurite – Meerschaum – Mica Schist – Porphyry – Quartz; Snow and Ice – Sodalite – Bibliography

    Chapter XV.  Deterioration, Preservation, and Cleaning of Stonework.  Deterioration of Stone – Preservation of Stone – Cleaning Stone – Bibliography

    Part III.  Crushed and Broken Stone

    Chapter XVI.  General Features of the Crushed-Stone Industries.  History – Types and Values of Stone Used – Crushed Stone and Dimension Stone Contrasted – Uses of Crushed Stone – Competition – Markets – Transportation – Prices – Royalties – Capital Required

    Chapter XVII.  Crushed and Broken Limestone.  Types of Stone Included – Extent of Industry – Uses of Crushed and Broken Limestone – Uses for Which Physical Properties are Most Important – Uses for Which Chemical Properties are Most Important – Uses of Dolomite and High-magnesian Limestone – Industry by States – Quarry Methods and Equipment; Bibliography

    Chapter XVIII.  Crushed and Broken Stone Other Than Limestone.  General Features – Uses – General Distribution and Value – Industries by States – Quarry Method and Equipment – Marketing – Bibliography

  • Quarrying Sandstone by Channeling and Wedging (March 1891) (The article includes a sketch with the caption: "Quarrying with Channeling and Wedging.") The Manufacturer and Builder, Vol. 23, Issue 3, March 1891, pg. 57. (Text of article in digital images viewed at American Memory, Library of Congress.)
  • Quarrying with the Ingersoll Bar Channeler ( July 1891) The Manufacturer and Builder, Vol. 23, Issue 7, July 1891, pg. 159 (Photograph of quarry and quarry workers and text of article (Text of article in digital images viewed at American Memory, Library of Congress)
  • Railway – Electric Railway used to transport marble in underground marble quarries – from The Marble Industry of Vermont, Free Press Printing Co., Burlington, Vermont, No date of publication – early 1920s.

    “The underground marble quarries at West Rutland are 2,000 feet long and have a maximum width of 700 feet. An electric road which operates on the floor of the quarry is 300 feet below the surface and stretches for 800 feet out into the tunnel. Connecting with this electric railway and leading up to the ground level is a cable track which is 500 feet long and rises at an angle of forty-five degrees.”

    Electric railway used in the underground marble quarries at West Rutland, "The Marble Industry of Vermont," early 1920s

    Electric railway used in the underground marble quarries at West Rutland

  • Rock Drill & Air Compressor (circa 1893) – Improved Rock Drill and Air Compressor,” in Scientific American, Vol. XXXV, No. 893, New York, February 11, 1893, pp. 14266-14267
Fig 1. Rock drill mounted on the end of a special tripod for drilling close to the wall, invented by James McCulloch of Wolverhampton (1893) Fig. 2 Longitudinal section of the rock drill invented by James McCulloch of Wolverhampton (1893) Fig 3. Mr. McCulloch’s tunnel car mounted with four 3 1/2 inch Rio Tinto drills (1893)

Fig 1. Rock drill mounted on the end of a special tripod for drilling close to the wall, invented by James McCulloch of Wolverhampton (1893)

Fig. 2 Longitudinal section of the rock drill invented by James McCulloch of Wolverhampton (1893)

Fig 3. Mr. McCulloch’s tunnel car mounted with four 3 1/2 inch Rio Tinto drills (1893)

"Fig. 5. Application of Gay's Stone Saw in a Marble Quarry” (in Belgium) in "The Helicoidal or Wire Stone Saw,"(1885 "Scientific American Supplement No. 520) "Figs 1, 2, and 3. Apparatus for Sawing Stone" (1885 "Scientific American Supplement No. 520) "Fig. 4. Apparatus for Sawing Stone into Slabs" (1885 "Scientific American Supplement No. 520)

“Fig. 5.  Application of Gay’s Stone Saw in a Marble Quarry”
(in Belgium)

“Figs 1, 2, and 3. Apparatus for Sawing Stone”

“Fig. 4. Apparatus for Sawing Stone into Slabs”

    • Wire Saw – “Helicoidal or Wire Stone Saw (pdf), in Scientific American, March 6, 1886.
      Engraving of application of Gate stone saw in a Belgian marble quarry ca 1886

      Application of Gate stone saw in a Belgian marble quarry ca 1886

  • Wire Cord Saw – Quarrying by Wire Cord (June 1891) (The article includes a sketch of machinery used to quarry by wire cord.) The Manufacturer and Builder, Vol. 23, Issue 6, June 1891, pgs. 129-130. (Text of article in digital images viewed at American Memory, Library of Congress.)
  • Wire Saw cutting Coconino Sandstone  (Stone In Arizona, by Roland C. Townsend, Consulting Geologist, Phoenix, Arizona, 1961, pp. 13)

    The photograph caption on pp. 13 states:  “Stationary wire saw cutting Coconino sandstone.”

  • Sculpture in white marble from Carrara 6 axis milling robot sculptures in white Carrara marble statue”  (YouTube video)
  • Slate Channeling by Machinery (November 1891) The Manufacturer and Builder, Vol. 23, Issue 11, November 1891, pg. 254. (Article in digital images viewed at American Memory, Library of Congress.)
  • Stone Channeling (April 1894) The Manufacturer and Builder, Vol. 26, Issue 4, April 1894, pg. 86. (Article in digital images viewed at American Memory, Library of Congress.)
  • Stone Channeling Machine  (The following photograph is from one of the Vermont Marble Company, World’s Largest Marble Exhibit, Proctor, Vermont Postcard Folders (pdf) Click on the pdf link in the preceding sentence if you want to see the rest of the postcard photographs in the folder.)
    “Channeling machine drilling out quarry block” (postcard photo)

    Channeling machine drilling out quarry block

  • Stone Dressing Machine (1871) – “Anderson’s Stone Dresser” – Mastodon Stone Dresser in Scientific American, Vol. XXV, No. 15, October 7, 1871, pp. 223  (Patented July 12, 1870, by Mr. A. G. Anderson; patent owned by Rice & Anderson of Quincy, Illinois.)
    Anderson’s Stone Dressing Machine known as the Mastadon Stone Dresser, "Scientific American," Oct. 7, 1871 Cutters used by Anderson’s Stone Dressing Machine known as the Mastadon Stone Dresser, "Scientific American," Oct. 7, 1871

    Anderson’s Stone Dressing Machine known as the Mastadon Stone Dresser

    Cutters used by the Stone Dressing Machine

  • Stone Dressing Machine (pneumatic) (1894) – “A Revolution in the Granite Business,” in The Monumental News, October 1894.  (According to this article, the firm Chas. H. More & Co. of Barre and Montpelier, Vermont, was among the first to introduce the Pneumatic Stone Dressing Machine, introduced by the American Pneumatic Tool Company of New York.)
  • “Pneumatic Stone Dress in operation.”  (1894) “Interior view of plant at Montpelier” (Vermont) (1894)

    “Pneumatic Stone Dress in operation.”

    “Interior view of plant at Montpelier” (Vermont)

  • Stone Ornamenting Machine (using diamond saws) (December 1874) The Manufacturer and Builder, Vol. 6, Issue 12, December 1874, pg. 273. (The article includes a sketch of the machine.) (Article in digital images viewed at American Memory, Library of Congress.)
  • Stone Quarrying by Machinery (August 1874) (The article contains a sketch of a "Stone-Quarrying Machine.") The Manufacturer and Builder, Vol. 6, Issue 8, August 1874, pgs. 172-173. (Article in digital images viewed at American Memory, Library of Congress.)
  • Stone Quarrying by Machinery (October 1884) (This article includes a sketch of "Saunders' Improved Ingersoll Channeling Machine" and another of a "gang of drills.") The Manufacturer and Builder, Vol. 16, Issue 10, October 1884, pg. 226. (Article in digital images viewed at American Memory, Library of Congress.)
  • Stone Quarrying Film filmed in the 1950s in a Vermont quarry, presented on Facebook (open to the public)

  • Stone Quarrying Machines at work from Industrie D'amico SRL – Italy  (YouTube video)
  • Stone Splitter – Hammer with Splitter with Compressed Air  (plugs and feathers)  (YouTube video)
  • Surface Cutting Granite by Machinery (Pneumatic Stone-Dressing Machine) (September 1894) The Manufacturer and Builder, Vol. 26, Issue 9, September 1894, pg. 207. (The article includes a sketch of a "Pneumatic Stone-Dressing Machine in Operation.") (Article in digital images viewed at American Memory, Library of Congress.)
  • Tempering Steel Tools for Stone Work (May 1892) The Manufacturer and Builder, Vol. 24, Issue 5, May 1892, pgs. 110-111. (Article in digital images viewed at American Memory, Library of Congress.)
  • The Toolemera Press & the Toolemera Blog, featuring the books, trade catalogs, photographs and ephemera of early tools, trades, crafts, and industries.
  • Tools and Machinery of the Granite Industry,” by Paul Wood, in The Chronicle of the Early American Industries Association, Inc.

    Part I. Vol. 59, No. 2, June 2006. (“Introduction: This article, the first in a series of four on granite working, deals with granite as a material, an industry, and a product and begins the description of the granite quarrying process.”)

    Part II. Vol. 59, No. 3, September 2006. (“Introduction: This article, the second in a series of four on granite working, completes the description of the quarrying process....”)

    Part III. Vol. 59, No. 4, December 2006. (“Granite Finishing: A small number of basic finished dimension stones made up the great majority of granite shed production. For gravestones and private....”)

    Part IV. Vol. 60, No. 1, March 2007. (“This article is the last in a series of four on the tools and machinery of granite working....”)

  • Tools Used in Stone-Cutting (February 1885) The Manufacturer and Builder, Vol. 17, Issue 2, February 1885, pg. 38. (Article in digital images viewed at American Memory, Library of Congress.)
  • Tools Used in Stone-Cutting (February 1890) The Manufacturer and Builder, Vol. 22, Issue 2, February 1890, pg. 32. (This article includes a sketch of the tools used) (Article in digital images viewed at American Memory, Library of Congress.)
  • Turning marble urn on lathe  (The following photograph is from one of the Vermont Marble Company, World’s Largest Marble Exhibit, Proctor, Vermont Postcard Folders (pdf)  Click on the pdf link in the preceding sentence if you want to see the rest of the postcard photographs in the folder.)
    “Turning marble urn on lathe” Vermont Marble Co. (postcard photo)

    Turning marble urn on lathe

  • "Water Also Quarries Stone," Stone World, Anon., Vol. 8, No. 5, p. 47, 1991a. "Where Fine Whetstones Come From" (March 1892) The Manufacturer and Builder, Vol. 24, Issue 3, March 1892, pg. 63. (Text of article in digital images viewed at American Memory, Library of Congress)
  • Wire Tramways for General Transportation (February 1885) (The article includes sketches: "The Hodgson System of Traveling Rope," "Loading end, showing terminal rail," "View of Incline Adaptation at Aalsund, Norway.") The Manufacturer and Builder, Vol. 17, Issue 2, February 1885, pgs. 36-38. (Article in digital images viewed at American Memory, Library of Congress.)

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