Logo Picture Left SideLogo Picture Right SideLogo Text at Center

References & Resources

History of Quarrying in California
From the California Indians up to Present Time


The California Indians – Quarries & Quarrying

  •  “Aboriginal Quarries – Soapstone Bowls and the Tools Used in Their Manufacture,” by J. D. McGuire, June 1883, in The American Naturalist, Vol. 17, Essex Institute, American Society of Naturalists, 1883, pp.  587-595.  (Keywords:  Santa Catalina Island, Los Angeles County, California)
  • Aboriginal Society in Southern California,” W. D. Strong, University of California Publications, American Archeology and Ethnology, Vol. 26, 1929.
  • Aboriginal Stone Drilling, C. Rau, Smithsonian Institution, Annual Report 1868, 1869, pp. 392-400.
  • Aboriginal Trade Between the Southwest and California,” R. F. Heizer, Southwest Museum Masterkey, Vol. 15, 1941, pp. 185-188.
  • Aboriginal Turquoise Mining in Arizona and New Mexico, W. P. Blake, American Cantiquarian, Vol. 21, No. 5, 1899.
  • An Isle of Summer:  Santa Catalina:  Its History, Climate, Sports and Antiquities, by Charles Frederick Holder, R. Y. McBride, 1901,  91 pp.  (This book is available on Google Books – Full View Books.)
  • Ancient Olla Manufactory on Santa Catalina Island, California,” P. Schumacher, American Naturalist, Vol. 12, 1878, pp. 629.
  • Ancient Salt Mine Near St. Thomas, Nevada,” M. R. Harrington, Heye Foundation, Museum of American Indian, Indian Notes, Vol. 2, 1925, pp. 227-231.
  • Another Ancient Salt Mine in Nevada,” M. R. Harrington, Heye Foundation, Museum of American Indian, Indian Notes, 1926, pp. 221-232.
  • Anthropological Studies in California,” W. H. Holmes, U. S. National Museum, Annual Report 1900, 1902, pp. 155-187.
  • Archeological Investigations at Buena Vista Lake, Kern County, California, W. R. Wedel, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin 130, 1941.
  • Archeological Notes on a Midden at Point Sal,” G. F. Carter, American Antiquity, Vol. 6, pp. 214-226.
  • Archeological Reconnaissance of Southeastern California and Northeastern Baja California,” A. E. Treganza, American Antiquity, Vol. 8, 1942, pp. 152-163.
  • Archeological Survey of Round Valley and Adjacent Drainage, (unpublished manuscript, M.S., no date), by A. E. Treganza, C. E. Smith, and W. D. Weymouth.
  • Building California:  Technology and the Landscape,” past exhibit of the California Historical Society, May 6 – August 15, 1998.
  • California: A History of Upper and Lower California, Alexander Forbes, Smith, Elder and Co., Cornhill, London, 1839.
  • California Mission Clash of Cultures, on Wikipedia
  • A California Verde Antique Quarry” (pdf), by Prof. Charles F. Holder in the Scientific American, Vol. LXXXI, No. 25, December 16, 1899, pp. 393-394.  (Keywords:  Santa Catalina Island, Los Angeles County, California)
  • Catalina – Before Modern History:  Archaeologists scour the Island for answers, by Linda Farley, Manager Conservation Operations, Catalina Island Conservancy, August 1, 2011, Online Newsletter.  (Photo caption:  “Here, Rich Zanelli, the Conservancy’s School Programs Specialist, introduces youngsters to the Soapstone Quarry near the Airport in the Sky.  Simply follow the Soapstone Quarry Trail, a short, easy walk, that begins at the junction of the Airport Road and El Rancho Escondido Road.”)
  • Certain Artifacts from San Miguel Island,” G. G. Heye, Heye Foundation, Museum of American Indian, Indian Notes and Monographs, Vol. 7, No. 4, 1921.
  • The Chemical Industries of the American Aborigines,” C. A. Browne, Isis, Vol. 23, 1935, pp. 406-424.
  • Clear Lake Pomo Society, E. W. Gifford, University of California Publications, Archeology and Ethnology, Vol. 18, No. 2, 1926.
  • Craft Specialization in the Prehistoric Channel Islands, California, by Jeanne E. Arnold, Volume 18 of University of California publications in anthropology, University of California Press, 1987, 278 pp., ISBN 0520097262, 9780520097261.  (This book is available on Google Books.)
  • Culture Element Distributions,” E. W. Gifford and A. L. Kroeber, IV, Pomo, University of California Publications, American Archeology and Ethnology, Vol. 37, No. 4, 1937.
  • Desert Indian Wells,” E. F. Walker, Southwest Museum Masterkey, Vol. 12, 1938, pp. 110-112.
  • Desert Indian Well (at Torres),” Anonymous, Southwest Museum Masterkey, Los Angeles, Vol. 13, 1939, pp. 152. 
  • The Early Mission Establishments in California” (pdf), in Scientific American, Vol. LXIII, No. 8, August 23, 1890, pp. 118.  (includes engravings of Santa Barbara Mission, Mission Santa Inez, and Mission San Luis Obispo)
  • The Ethno-botany of the Coahuilla Indians of Southern California, D. P. Barrows, 1900.
  • Ethnology of the Cahuilla Indians,” A. L. Kroeber, University of California Publications, American Archeology and Ethnology, Vol. 8, No. 2, 1908.
  • The Ethnogeography of the Pomo and Neighboring Indians,” S. A. Barrett, University of California Publications, American Archeology and Ethnology, Vol. 6, 1908.  (The text from this book is available at the University of California Calisphere and on Google Books - Full View Books.)
  • Handbook of Aboriginal American Antiquities:  The Lithic Industries, W. H. Holmes, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin 30, Part 1, 1919.  (This book is available on Google Books – Full View Books.)
  • Handbook of the Indians of California, A. L. Kroeber, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin 78, 1925.
  • Historical Notes on Gem Mining,” S. H. Ball, Economic Geology, Vol. 26, 1931, pp. 681-738.
  • History of California, The Native Races, Vol. II.  1801-1824  The Works of Hubert Howe Bancroft,  Vol. XIX, San Francisco:  History Publishing Co., 1885.  (This book is available on Google Books – Full View Books.) 
  • History of California to 1899, on Wikipedia
  • History of Santa Catalina Island,” by Mrs. M. Burton Williamson (read Dec. 7, 1903) in the Southern California Quarterly, Vol. 6, by Los Angeles County Pioneers of Southern California, Historical Society of Southern California, 1904, pp. 14-31.   (Keywords:  Santa Catalina Island, Los Angeles County, California) (Indian serpentine & soapstone quarries), pp. 25 et al.
  • Indian Beliefs Concerning Earthquakes,” A. L. Kroeber, Journal American Folklore, Vol. 19, 1906, pp. 322-323.
  • Indian Quarries for Vessels of Soapstone,” Friends Review, A Religious, Literary, and Miscellaneous Journal, Edited by James E. Rhoads, Vol. 32, 1878-79, Philadelphia, pp. 93-94. (Keywords:  California Indians) (This book is available on Google Books – Full View Books.)
  • “Indian Quarries for Vessels of Soapstone,” Friends’ Review: A Religious, Literary and Miscellaneous Journal, James E. Rhoades, editor, Vol. XXXII., Philadelphia, 1878-1879, pp. 93-94.  (This book is available on Google Books – Full View Books.)
  • Indian Reductions, on Wikipedia
    “Reductions (known as Reducciones de Indios, or simply Reducciones in Spanish; also Congregaciones) were settlements founded by the Spanish colonizers of the New World with the purpose of assimilating indigenous populations into European culture and religion.”
  • The Indian Sentinel, Vol. 2, by the Society for the Preservation of the Faith Among Indian Children, Bureau of Catholic Indian Missions, 1920, 586 pp.  (Keywords:  Mission priest and Indian mason) (pp. 463 a 1923 letter from the priest about an Indian mason building a stone building.)
  • Indians of California: The Changing Image, James J. Rawls, University of Oklahoma Press, Norman, Oklahoma, 1984, ISBN 0-8061-2020-7.
  • Indians of the Far West,” in The Illustrated London News, Vol. XXXII, No. 913, Saturday, April 17, 1858, pp. 400-401.
“Diegeno Indians Travelling.” “Indians of the Far West,” in The Illustrated London News, April 17, 1858, pp. 400. “Yuma Indians.” “Indians of the Far West,” in The Illustrated London News, April 17, 1858, pp. 400. “Papagos Women.” “Indians of the Far West,” in The Illustrated London News, April 17, 1858, pp. 400.I

Diegeno Indians Travelling.” (Lived in the San Diego County, California, area)

 

Yuma Indians.”
(Lived in the Yuma, Arizona, area)

Papagos Women.”
(Lived in the area southeast of Yuma, Arizona, into northwestern Sonora, Mexico)

 

  • The Kamia of Imperial Valley, E. W. Gifford, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin 97, 1931.
  • Long Lost Mines of Precious Gems are Found Again,” G. Eisen, San Francisco Call (newspaper), March 18, 1927.
  • Luck Stones Among the Yana,” H. N. Rust and A. L. Kroeber, Journal of American Folklore, Vol. 21, 1908, pp. 42.
  • Materials, Apparatus, and Processes of the Aboriginal Lapidary,” J. D. McGuire, American Anthropology, o.s., Vol. 5, 1892, pp. 165-176.
  • The Method of Manufacture of Soapstone Pots,” P. Schumacher, U. S. Geological Survey, W. 10th Mer. Report, Vol. VII, Archeology, pp. 117-121.  (Also published in Peabody Museum Reports, Vol. 2, 1880, pp. 260-264.)
  • The Method of Manufacturing Pottery and Baskets Among the Indians of Southern California, P. Schumacher, Harvard University, Peabody Museum, Annual Report 12, Vol. 11, No. 3, 1880.
  • Miwok Material Culture, S. A. Barrett and E. W. Gifford, Public Museum City of Milwaukee Bulleting, Vol. 2, No. 4, 1933.
  • Mines and Quarries of the American Indians,” W. H. Holmes, Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin 30, Pt. 1, 1907, pp. 864-867.  (Washington)
  • Mines and Quarries of the Indians of California,” by Robert F. Heizer (former research Associate in Anthropology, University of California) and Adan E. Treganza (Former preparatory, Museum of Anthropology, University of California), California Division of Mines, Vol. 40, No. 3, July 1944, pp. 291-359.
  • Mines and Quarries of the Indians of California, by Robert F. Heizer and Adan E. Treganza, Ramona, California: Ballena Press, 1972, pp.  291-350.
  • The Mining of Gems and Ornamental Stones by American Indians, S. H. Ball, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin 128, Authrop. Paper 13, 1941.
  • Native Americans in the United States, on Wikipedia
  • The Native Races, Vol. 1.  Wild Tribes, Works of Hubert Howe Bancroft, San Francisco:  History Publishing Co., 1886.  (This book is available on Google Books – Full View Books.) 
  • The Natural World of the California Indians, Volume 46 of California natural history guides, by Robert Fleming Heizer and Albert B. Elsasser, photographs by Albert B. Elsasser University of California Press, 271 pp., 1980ISBN0520038967, 9780520038967.  (“This information-packed guide describes patterns of village life, and covers such subjects as Indian tools and artifacts, hunting techniques, and food.” This book is available on Google Books.)  (Keywords:  Indian soapstone dishes)
  • The Northern Maidu, R. B. Dixon, American Museum of Natural History Bulletin, Vol. 17, Pt. 3, 1905.
  • The Northfork Mono,” E. W. Gifford, University of California Publication, American Archeology and Ethnology, Vol. 31, No. 2, 1932.
  • On the Depression of the Colorado Basin,” G. E. Gray, California Academy of Science, Pr., Vol. 4, 1873, pp. 228-230.
  • Order of Development of the Primal Stone Shaping Arts, W. H. Holmes, Smithsonian Institution, Annual Report 1901, 1902.
  • The Patwin and Their Neighbors, A. L. Kroeber, University of California Publication, American Archeology and Ethnology, Vol. 29, No. 4, 1932.
  • The Physical Properties of Stone Tool Materials,” M. E. Goodman, American Antiquity, Vol. 4, 1944, pp. 415-433.
  • Pomo Lands on Clear Lake,” E. W. Gifford, University of California Publications, Archeology and Ethnology, Vol. 20, 1923, pp. 77-94.
  • The Population of the California Indians, 1769-1970, Sherburne F. Cook, Ph.D., University of California Press, Berkeley, California, 1976, ISBN 0-520-02923-2.
  • Prehistoric Mining in the Southwest, K. Bartlett, Museum of Northern Arizona, Notes, Vol. 7, Flagstaff, 1935.
  • Prehistoric Quarries and Lithic Production,” By Jonathon E. Ericson, Barbara A. Purdy, Cambridge University Press, 1984, Social Science, 149 pp.  (Parts of this book are available on Google Books)
  • A prehistoric stone quarry exhibit from the Indian Arts Building (photo courtesy of the Museum of Man)” (photograph caption), from “The Southwest on Display at the Panama-California Exposition, 1915,” in The Journal of San Diego History, San Diego Historical Society Quarterly, Fall 1990, Volume 36, Number 4, Richard W. Crawford, Editor, pp. 202.  (Depicts two Indians cutting into a block of stone.)
  • Preparation of Acorn Meal by Pomo Indians,” J. W. Hudson, American Anthropology, n.s., Vol. 2, 1900, pp. 775-776.
  • A Prehistoric Soapstone Quarry,” E. F. Walker, Southwest Museum Masterkey, Vol. 6, 1935, pp. 178-180.
  • The Quicksilver Mine of New Almaden,” S. A. Downer, The Pioneer, Vol. 2, 1854, pp. 220-228.
  • Race and Homicide in Nineteenth-Century California, Clare Vernon McKanna, University of Nevada Press, Reno, Nevada, 2002, ISBN 0-87417-515-1.
  • Santa Catalina Island,” G. C. Randolph, The Mineralogist, Vol. 3, No. 8, 1935, pp. 7-8.
  • Spanish Voyages to the Northwest Coast, California Historical Society, Special Publication No. 4, 1929, San Francisco.
  • Springs of California, G. A. Waring, U. S. Geological Survey Water Supply Paper 338, 1915.
  • Study of the Primitive Methods of Drilling, J. D. McGuire, U. S. National Museum, Annual Report, 1894, 1896.
  • A Time of Little Choice: The Disintegration of Tribal Culture in the San Francisco Bay Area 1769-1910, Randall Milliken, Ballena Press Publication, Menlo Park, CA, 1995, ISBN 0-87919-132-5.
  • Toro Reservation, Indian Wells,” C. P. Baldwin, Southwest Museum Masterkey, Vol. 12, 1938, pp. 151-153.
  • Tribes of California, S. Powers, Central North American Ethnology, Vol. 3, 1877.
  • The Walla Walla Indian Expeditions to the Sacramento Valley 1846-1848, R. F. Heizer, California Historical Society Quarterly, Vol. 21, 1942, pp. 1-7.
  • The Way We Lived:  California Indian Stories, Songs & Remembrances, Malcolm Margolin, Heyday Books, Berkeley, California, 1993, ISBN 0-93058-855-X.
  • The Wells of the Ancient Coahuillas, J. Hilton, Westways, March, 1936.
  • Wintu Ethnology,” C. Dubois, University of California Publication, American Archeology and Ethnology, Vol. 36, No. 1, 1935.
  • Works of Hubert Howe Bancroft (1882-1890) (This link provides you with a list of all editions of Bancroft’s works available on Google Books – Full View Books)
  • A World Transformed:  Firsthand Accounts of California Before the Gold Rush, by Joshua Paddison, Heyday Books, Berkeley, CA 1999, ISBN 1-890771-13-9.
  • Yokus and Western Mono Pottery-Making, A. Gayton, University of California Publications, American Archeology and Ethnology, Vol. 24, No. 3, 1929.
  • Yuman Pottery Making, M. J. Rogers, San Diego Museum Papers, No. 2, 1936.

The Missions & Spanish, Rancho Era

California Quarrying During this Time Period

Front cover of "The Missions of California," by E.L. Smyth, 1899 "Mission Garden at Santa Barbara," from "The Missions of California," by E.L. Smyth, 1899 "Mission San Gabriel Stairs," from "The Missions of California," by E.L. Smyth, 1899

Front cover of The Missions of California,” published in 1899

“Mission Garden at Santa Barbara”
(1899)

“Mission San Gabriel Stairs”
(1899)

  • The Missions of California, Bill Yenne, Advantage Publishers Group, San Diego, CA, 2004, ISBN 1-59223-319-8.
  • The Missions of California, S. Young and M. Levick, Chronicle Books LLC, San Francisco, CA, 1988, ISBN 0-8118-3694-0.
  • Native Californians:  A Theoretical Perspective, Lowell John Bean and Harry Lawgon, Ballena Press, Banning, California, 1976.
  • Nuestra Señora de la Soledad Mission, on Wikipedia
  • Nuestra Senora de la Soledad Mission, California Missions On-Line Project
  • Oldest Irrigation Conduit and Dam in the United States” (pdf) (old San Diego Mission Dam), in Engineering News, Vol. 75, No. 7, February 17, 1916, pp. 297-298. (This article is about the old San Diego Mission Dam.  The old San Diego Mission dam was constructed across the head of Mission Gorge and was completed by 1815.  The dam was constructed of stone and cement on exposed bedrock.)
  • Old Mission San Juan Capistrano, California (booklet), Curt Teich & Co. Inc., Chicago, Illinois.
Front cover of the Old Mission San Juan Capistrano, California booklet Mission San Juan Capistrano – The Great Stone Church Mission San Juan Capistrano Companario, Stone Church & Garden

Front cover of the Old Mission San Juan Capistrano, California booklet

Mission San Juan Capistrano – The Great Stone Church

Mission San Juan Capistrano Companario, Stone Church & Garden


Era of American and Foreign Incursion through 1914


Geology, Stone, the California Building Industry, &

Building Construction

  • The Art of Splitting Stone: Early Rock Quarrying Methods in Pre-industrial New England, 1630-1825, by Mary Elaine Gage and J. E. Gage, Powwow River Books, 2005, 88 pp., ISBN 0971791023, 9780971791022.
  • The Architect’s Handbook of Marble, Granite, and Stone, Vol. I, Technical Guide, Enrico Corbella, Illustrations by Renato Zini, New York:  Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1990, 164 pp.
  • Building Materials of the California Gold Country:  A Selective Photographic Tour From Mariposa in Mariposa County to Auburn in Placer County (based on the) Geologic Guidebook Along Highway 49, Sierra Gold Belt, The Mother Lode Country, Bulletin 141, (Centennial Edition), California Department of Mines, 1948.
  • The Building Stones of America,” in the American Architect and Building News Magazine, Vol. 16, No. 454, September 6, 1884, pp. 113-114. (This article is available on Google Books.)
  • The Mineral Wealth of California,” in California:  Its Products, Resources, and Industries and Attractions, What it offers the immigrant, homeseeker, investor and tourist, published by the California Louisiana Purchase Exposition Commission in 1904, pp. 32- 33, 40. (This book is available on Google Books - Full View Books.)
  • A California Verde Antique Quarry”(pdf), by Prof. Charles F. Holder in the Scientific American, Vol. LXXXI, No. 25, December 16, 1899, pp. 393-394.  (Keywords:  Santa Catalina Island, Los Angeles County, California)
  • Dimension Stone Cladding: Design, Construction, Evaluation, and Repair, ASTM International, December 1, 2000, 190 pp., ISBN-10: 0803128754, ISBN-13: 978-0803128750.
  • Field-Trip Guide to the Southeastern Foothills of the Santa Cruz Mountains in Santa Clara County, California (pdf), U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 02-121, 2002, By Philip W. Stoffer and Paula Messina, pp. 13.  (Keywords:  Calera, or calero, Spanish word for a limestone quarry (or lime kiln);  Mutsun Ohlone Indians; bedrock mortars:  stone bowls used with a pestle.)
  • Geologic Guidebook Along Highway 49 – Sierran Gold Belt, The Mother Lode Country, (Centennial Edition), California Division of Mines Bulletin 141, Olaf P. Jenkins, San Francisco:  September 1948.
  • Geologic Guidebook of The San Francisco Bay Counties:  History, Landscape, Geology, Fossils, Minerals, Industry, and Routes to Travel, California Division of Mines Bulletin 154, Prepared under the direction of Olaf P. Jenkins, San Francisco, December 1951.
  • Gems and Previous Stones,” D. B. Sterrett, Mineral Resources of the United States 1909, Part 2, 1911, pp. 739-808.
  • The Geology of Santa Catalina Island, by William Sydney Tangier Smith, Candidate Ph.D., University of California, Issued February 4, 1897, San Francisco:  Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences, Geology, 3rd Series, Vol. 1, No. 1, 1897.  (This book is available on Google Books – Full View Books.)
  • Historical Notes on Gem Mining,” S. H. Ball, Economic Geology, Vol. 26, 1931, pp. 681-738.
  • Limestone in California,” by Clarence A. Logan, in California Journal of Mines and Geology, Vol. 43, No. 3, July 1947, Division of Mines, San Francisco,  pp. 175-357.
  • Mineral Resources of California, Bulletin 191, State of California Division of Mines and Geology, San Francisco, 1966.
  • Plaster – The History of Plaster in Architecture The Ancient and Classical Periods:  The art of plastering is as old as civilization, by Patrick Webb, August 1, 2012.
  • Precious Stones, Gems, Jewelers’ Materials and Ornamental Stones of California, G. F. Kunz, California Mining Bureau, Bulletin 37, 2nd ed., 1905.
  • Quarry Reservoirs,” in “Water Conservation; Think Green, by Saddleback Educational Publishing, published by Saddleback Educational Publishing, 2008, pp. 44-45, ISBN1599053527, 9781599053523. (Parts of this book are available on Google Books.)
    • Calero Dam and Reservoir
      “Calero Dam and Reservoir, located in Santa Clara, California, is built on Calero Creek.  Calero is a Spanish term that means ‘limestone quarry.’  This reservoir covers an area of 349 acres and the capacity to store 9,934 acre-feet of water.”
    • Calero Dam and Reservoir
  • Report on the Building Stones of the United States and Statistics of the Quarry Industry for 1880, G. W. Hawes, and others, Census Office, 1884.  (This book is available on the Internet Archives – Texts.)
  • The Stone Industries:  Dimension Stone, Crushed Stone, Geology, Technology, Distribution, Utilization, by Oliver Bowles, New York and London:  McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 2nd ed., 1939, 519 pp.
  • The Stone Industries, Oliver Bowles, 1934, 950 pp.  (This book is available on the Internet Archives – Texts.)
  • The Structural and Industrial Materials of California, L. E. Aubury, California Mining Bureau Bulletin 38, 1906.  (This book is available on Google Book Search – Full View Books.)

General California History

  • An Isle of Summer:  Santa Catalina:  Its History, Climate, Sports and Antiquities, by Charles Frederick Holder, R. Y. McBride, 1901,  91 pp.  (This book is available on Google Books – Full View Books.)
  • Building California:  Technology and the Landscape,” past exhibit of the California Historical Society, May 6 – August 15, 1998.
  • California:  A History of Upper and Lower California, Alexander Forbes, Elder Smith and Co., Cornhill, London, 1839.
  • California Local History:  A Bibliography and Union List of Library, by Margaret Miller Rocq, California Library Association. Stanford University Press, 611 pp., 1970ISBN0804707162, 9780804707169.  (A preview of this book is available on Google Books.)
  • California Place Names:  The Origin and Etymology of Current Geographical Names, by Erwin G. Gudde, 4th ed., rev. and enlarged by William Bright, University of California Press, 1998.  (Keywords:  Calera; calero; lime kiln; quarry)
  • California Prehistory: Colonization, Culture, and Complexity, Terry L. Jones and Kathryn A. Klar (eds.), Altimira Press, Landham, MD. ISBN 0-759-10872-2. 
  • California the Wonderful:  Her Romantic History, Her Picturesque People, Her Wild Shore, Edwin Markham, Hearst’s International Library Company, Inc., New York, 1914.
  • Geologic Guidebook Along Highway 49 – Sierran Gold Belt, The Mother Lode Country, (Centennial Edition), California Division of Mines Bulletin 141, Olaf P. Jenkins, San Francisco:  September 1948.
  • Geologic Guidebook of The San Francisco Bay Counties:  History, Landscape, Geology, Fossils, Minerals, Industry, and Routes to Travel, California Division of Mines Bulletin 154, Prepared under the direction of Olaf P. Jenkins, San Francisco, December 1951.
  • Historic Spots in California, by Mildred Brooke Hoover, Hero Eugene Rensch, Ethel Grace Rensch, 3rd ed. revised by William N. Abeloe, Stanford University Press, 1966.  (4th ed. revised by Douglas E. Kyle, 1990)
  • History of Santa Catalina Island,” by Mrs. M. Burton Williamson (read Dec. 7, 1903) in the Southern California Quarterly, Vol. 6, by Los Angeles County Pioneers of Southern California, Historical Society of Southern California, 1904, pp. 14-31.   (Keywords:  Santa Catalina Island, Los Angeles County, California) (Indian serpentine & soapstone quarries), pp. 25 et al. (This presentation is available on Google Books - Full View Books.)
  • History of the West Coast of North America, on Wikipedia
  • Land in California, W. W. Robinson, University of California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles, California, 1948.
  • Rand McNally’s Pioneer Atlas of The American West, Rand McNally & Co., 1969 ed.  (“California” section, pp. 16.)

[Top of Page]