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“The quarry of this company is located in the SW ¼ of Sec. 36, T. 38 N., R. 8 E., Ste. Genevieve County, about four miles southwest of the town of Ste. Genevieve. Situated on the north side of the valley of South Gabouri Creek, the quarry property adjoins the right-of-way of the Missouri-Illinois Railroad and is served by a spur of that railroad at Marlo Switch.
Fig. 2. Location of the four principal marble quarries described. Outline Map of Missouri, Missouri Geological Survey and Water Resources. 1) Inkley Marble Quarries Co. quarry. 2) Ozora Marble Quarries Co. quarry. 3) Vermont Marble Co. quarry (and Phenix Marble Co. quarry). 4) Carthage Marble Corp. quarry.
“Regionally this quarry is located on the northeastern flank of the Ozark Uplift and at the eastern margin of the outcrop-belt of Ordovician sedimentary rocks, near where they pass under the overlying Mississippian strata. The beds dip downward very gently to the east-northeast toward the Illinois structural basin. The beds worked are in the Kimmswick formation of Ordovician age, which has a total thickness of from 100 to 110 feet in this area. The bottom of the present quarry is still in the Kimmswick and extend downward into some of the upper beds of the quarry so that care must be taken in directing quarrying operations at places in some of the upper ledges which are worked.
“Bedding is somewhat indistinct in the quarry-face. However, rather unsatisfactory determinations indicate that the beds apparently have a dip of approximately 3° to 4° in a direction of about N. 60° E. to N. 70° E. Weathered surface outcrops are few, poorly exposed, and discontinuous in the immediate vicinity of the quarry making difficult any attempt to describe a measured section on the property, except in the quarry. As noted, the Kimmswick is a very massive limestone at this location, and bedding is indistinct in the quarry-face. For these reasons, in the measured section given below, the Kimmswick is here divided into the quarry-men’s units and the trade names of the several quarried ledges are noted in the descriptions of those units.
“Section at the quarry of the Inkley Marble Quarries Company in the SW ¼ Sec. 36, T. 38 N., R. 8 E., Ste. Genevieve County, Mo.
10. Residual clay, with chert and sandstone boulders; makes the hill-slope above the quarry.
9. Limestone; dark gray with pink mottling; fine-grained and streaked with calcite veinlets near top, coarser-grained below; upper 16 feet occurs as ‘boulders’ or discontinuous massive beds; eroded upper surface and vertical seams filled with dark red or brown clay; contains many specimens of the fossil sponge, Receptaculites. Some portions of this ledge are crushed to add darker colors to terrazzo mix. Thickness varies from zero to a maximum of about 18 feet thick.
8. Limestone; lighter gray than No. 9, the lower 8 feet containing pinkish beds; lower 2 feet lighter in color; crystalline, medium-grained to coarse-grained; fossiliferous; some stylolites. This is the quarrymen’s bed ‘A-1’ and lies immediately above the highest beds now quarried for marble - 12 feet thick.
7. Limestone; white to creamy white; crystalline, medium-to coarse-grained; fossiliferous; occasional fine stylolites; massively bedded with no distinct bedding planes; base of this ledge is the floor of the upper (north) quarry-opening. This ledge is the quarrymen’s ledge ‘A’ from which is produced marble marketed as ‘Adorado’ or Ste. Genevieve Totticino’. Erosion has cut down into and through this ledge at west end of quarry. A broad bench or quarry floor separates No. 7 from No. 6 - 10 feet thick.
6. Limestone; light gray to medium gray; crystalline, coarse-grained; some narrow stylolites; highly fossiliferous, containing many brachiopods and great numbers of bryozoans. A bench or working-floor in the quarry was left at a level about 14 feet below the top of this unit at the time of examination. This is the quarrymen’s unit ‘D’, and the marble marketed as ‘Shelldorado’ is taken from ledges in this unit. - 23 feet thick.
5. Limestone; slightly darker in color than No. 6 above; gray, with a delicate pinkish or brownish-gray mottling; stylolites are a pale yellowish-brown; crystalline, medium- to coarse-grained; fossiliferous, containing brachiopods, bryozoans, and gastropods. This is the unit ‘E’ of the quarrymen and from it is taken marble to which the name ‘Eldorado’ or ‘Ste. Genevieve Istrian’ is given. - 4 ½ feet thick.
4. Limestone; dark gray to brownish-gray, streaked with local areas of bluish mottling, the darkest ledge noted in the quarry; crystalline, medium-grained; fossiliferous, an occasional veinlet or vug filled with calcite; stylolites narrow, dark gray to black, and prominent because of their color. The upper 6 inches of this ledge is finer-grained and contains occasional nodules of dark gray chert along a bedding-plane. This is the quarrymen’s ledge ‘F’, from which the ‘Indorado’ or “Inkley Vein’ marble is taken. - 6 feet thick.
3. Limestone; dark gray to brownish-gray but lighter in color than No. 4 above; some lighter gray and brown mottling; fossiliferous; crystalline, fine-grained to medium-grained with some coarse-grained areas and layers; stylolitic, the stylolitics dark in color. This is the lowest ledge quarried at the present time and is the quarrymen’s unit ‘G’ from which ‘Gradorado’ marble is taken.
2. Limestone; gray and brownish-gray; crystalline, very coarse-grained. Makes the floor of the present quarry. Exposed, about 1 foot thick.
1. Covered interval below quarry to level of South Gabouri Creek. In this creek-bed, immediately southwest of the quarry, crystalline limestone of the Kimmswick formation is in approximate contact with dense, dark bluish-gray limestone of the underlying Decorah formation. Covered interval, about 22 feet thick.
“No distinct systems of jointing were observed in the quarry beds, and attempts to determine directional trends in solution channels in the stone near the surface gave no reliable clue to any definite pattern of joints. However, examination of thin limestone beds in the top of the Decorah formation immediately beneath the Kimmswick in the creek below the quarry show a pattern of intersecting joints which strike approximately northeast and northwest.
“Quarrying operations were started at this location in 1922 when the Consolidated Marble Quarries Company put down a diamond-drill core-hole and opened up a face reported to have been 18 feet high, in the lower portion of the present quarry. This operation is said to have continued for about one year. The quarry was then closed down and remained idle for five or six years. Quarrying was resumed in 1929, but this second attempt to develop the stone is reported to have lasted for only five or six months, after which period of activity it was not in use until it was reopened by the present operators in 1936. The Inkley Marble Quarries Company have operated the property from 1936 to the present time (circa 1946), and in 1937 had installed a modern crusher plant at the quarry site to take the waste from the marble-quarrying operations.
“The present quarry is being projected northward into the hill. Operations in the old, or lower, quarry have been extended in this direction and the lower quarry is now approximately 75 to 100 feet wide in an east-west direction and various levels have been carried from about 75 to 125 feet to the north, into the face. An adjoining upper quarry has been opened in higher beds to the north (Unit No. 7 of the geologic section given above), where an area approximately 100 feet by 110 feet has been stripped of over-burden.
“A steel derrick with an 85-foot mast serves the quarry. Coal is used in the boiler-house to supply steam-power to operate air-compressors for the pneumatic drills, and lines from the boiler-house feed the steam-engines which operate the crusher plant and the hoisting-engine.
“Blocks are line-drilled to give complete vertical cuts in two directions, and are wedged with holes drilled on 4-inch to 6-inch centers at the base of each block. Quarrymen report that blocks break ‘clean to the cut’ with the usual plug-and-feather method of wedging. Quarrying tools include jack-hammers and quarry-bar drills. No channeling machines are employed. The largest block quarried to date is reported to have been 24 by 4 ½ by 4 ½ feet. The by-product crusher plant is equipped with a single crusher and conveyor system, and sized material passes from the screens to a packaging room and warehouse which adjoins the crusher plant and conveyor house.
“The marble blocks are loaded at the quarry-spur for shipment to fabricators. The various ledges of the quarry are described in the geologic section given above, and marble from them is marketed under several trade names. The varieties of color, texture, mottling, and marbling in different ledges are at present marketed under the following trade names:
(1) ‘Adorado’ or ‘Ste. Genevieve Botticino’: a white, light gray, or creamy white marble;
(2) ‘Shelldorado’: a light gray margble mottled with white or darker gray fossils;
(3) ‘Eldorado’, or ‘Ste. Genevieve Istrian’: a gray to brownish-gray fossiliferous marble with pinkish areas and stylolites or veins of lighter brown or ‘gold’ coloring;
(4) ‘Indorado’ or ‘Inkley Vein’ marble: a darker gray marble streaked and clouded at places with bluish-gray and yellowish-brown areas, and mottled with white sections through fossils. Stylolites are prominent and dark-gray to black;
(5) ‘Gradorado’: A brownish-gray marble of dark colors but liter in color than the ‘Indorado’. Mottled with small, white flecks where fossils are present.
“As the Kimmswick is highly fossiliferous, any of the polished slabs of marble from this quarry may show darker gray or very light gray or whitish mottling where sawing cuts through fossil remains. Some veinlets or vugs filled with crystalline calcite are occasionally seen in polished specimens of the marble. Stylolite ‘sutures’ are present in most of the ledges and are usually ‘tight’ and narrow. The marble is used chiefly for interior work as a decorative stone.
“Products of the crusher-plant, which takes waste stone from the quarry, include terrazo (sic) aggregates of various sizes, poultry grit, agricultural limestone, and powdered limestone.
“Among the many installations of marble taken from this quarry, the following buildings in various parts of the United States which contain some marble from the Inkley Quarry, have been selected from a partial list furnished by the company:
“‘Adorado’ or ‘Ste. Genevieve Botticino’ Marble
Criminal Courts Building, New York, New York
National Art Gallery, Washington, D.C.
Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.
State House, Concord, N.H.
U.S. Post Office, Tulsa, Okla.
U.S. Post Office, Newark, N.J.
U.S. Post Office, Des Plaines, Ill.
Court House and U.S. Post Office, Enid, Okla.
“‘Eldorado’ or ‘Ste. Genevieve Istrian’ Marble
Master Street High School, Philadelphia, Pa.
U.S. Post Office, Ste. Genevieve, Mo.
High School, Montpelier, Vt.
U.S. Post Office, Traverse City, Mich.
Court House and U.S. Post Office, St. Joseph, Mo.
City Hall, Kansas City, Mo.
Manchester Bank, St. Louis, Mo.
U.S. Post Office, Red Bud, Nebr.
U.S. Post Office, Tillamook, Ore.
“‘Indorado’ or ‘Inkley Vein’ Marble
Needle Trades School, New York, N.Y.
Airport Terminal, Dallas, Tex.
Hall of Music, University of Indiana, Bloomington, Ind.”
“...I have no information on what remains at the location of the Inkley Marble Quarry. In mid-2004, I drove along Lime Kiln Road but saw no evidence of the quarry.
“The quarry was opened by the Consolidated Marble Quarries Company in 1922, and operated for about a year. It was reopened in 1929, but operated only 5-6 months.
“The Inkley Marble Quarries Company reopened the quarry again in 1936 and operated it until 1946. A crusher was installed in 1937 to produce byproducts (crushed and powdered limestone) from the waste. Some marble from the quarry has been used in the National Gallery of Art and the Library of Congress, in Washington, DC, and many other places from the State House in New Hampshire to Oregon.
“The limestone was quarried from Ordovician-age Kimmswick Formation, which at the site is a massive limestone with indistinct bedding and a total thickness of 100’-110’. The quarry was served by Missouri Illinois Railway (now the Union Pacific Railroad).”
“Mississippi Lime Company
“...Much of the facilities of the Mississippi Lime Company are clearly viewable from US 61, essentially at the west end of Market Street. At least formerly, there were masonry lime kilns on the property which were in operation from about 1840 until the early-1900s. The quarries, named the Peerless Quarry and Mississippi Quarry are underground.
“(Mississippi Lime) claims to have begun operations in Ste. Genevieve in the 1920s, with a quarry and 4 vertical lime kilns. Seven more kilns were added by the end of the 1920s. In 1998, a Maerz kiln began operation.
“Among many other products, the Mississippi Lime Company supplies ‘rock dust’ for coal mines in the region.
“The vast underground room-and-pillar mines are up to 90’ high, covering over 1000 acres, very much like the Old Lead Belt lead mines.
“The rock quarried is the oolitic Spergen Limestone. Oolitic limestone is typically pure.”
Since the early 1900s, the Ste. Genevieve Division of Mississippi Company has produced high calcium lime products.
“Peerless White Lime Company. This plant, a subsidiary of the Hunkins Willis Lime and Cement Company of St. Louis, was started in 1908. It is located at Mosher Station about 2 ¼ miles west of Ste. Genevieve.
“As in other parts of the district, the upper part of the Spergen formation furnishes the stone for this plant. Quarrying operations were formerly confined to an open quarry. The overlying St. Louis formation increased in thickness as the face was extended into the hill and tunnelling (sic) was resorted to in 1921. At present the bulk of the stone is obtained by underground operations although some stone is now obtained from a new opening in the quarry from which the overburden has been removed by hydraulic stripping.
“In Tunnelling (sic), the original headings are driven 40 feet wide by 16 feet high. This permits the removal of the bed of white oolitic limestones which are usually burned separately as it yields a high-grade chemical lime. In some parts of the mine the oolitic limestone is overlain by a layer two to four feet thick which is adapted for certain purposes and is removed separately. The stone above this rock for a vertical distance of 25 feet is next removed, and finally 35 feet of rock below the base of the oolitic limestone is removed, making the final stope 75 feet in the height. The arrangement of the pillars is such that a rock recovery of 86 per cent is reported from the underground operations.
“The open quarry shows mud-filled joints in the face, which are particularly noticeable just under the overburden. Joints are also present in the underground workings, but are confined chiefly to the ground at or near the mouths of the tunnels. Occasional mud-filled cracks are encountered, but are taken care of to prevent mud and gravel from entering the mine during wet seasons. Holes are drilled with rock drills and shot with dynamite, care being taken to reduce the percentage of spalls. In this connection it is interesting to note the use of red flares in the mine which warn the workmen of the location of impending ‘shots.’
“The rock is hauled by mine cars by gasoline motors over a well arranged system of tracks to the plant located north of the quarry. Ten kilns have been constructed, and 9 are being fired at present, the plant having a maximum daily capacity of 225 tons.
“The kilns are fired by gas furnished by Woods type producer gas machine. The last two kilns constructed by the Company are 84 feet in height. They are charged with stone by means of a five-ton skip hoist loading from rock storage bins. These kilns have been the subject of much experimentation by the company and considerable attention has been paid to features that will insure a more uniform product, plus efficiency in operation at lower costs. The plant has a continuous hydrator of the Kreitzer type for the manufacture of hydrated lime.”
According to the brochure, Building Stones of Downtown Chattanooga, large amounts of limestone were quarried in this area during the 1920s and 1930s. Georgia Marble operated the quarries and sold it under the name Ste. Genevieve Golden Vein “Marble.” Please see the brochure for a more detailed description of the stone and a photograph of the Federal Building in Chattanooga in which this stone was used in the lobby and along the stairways. (From Building Stones of Downtown Chattanooga ( Tennessee ), by Robert Lake Wilson, 1979. The digital PDF version is available through the University of Tennessee at Chattanooga, Geology Program, Department of Physics, Geology and Astronomy.)
“Ste. Genevieve Lime and Quarry Company. The plant and quarry of this company are located at Mosher Station (Macy on the County Map) on the Missouri-Illinois Railroad, about two miles west of Ste. Genevieve. The quarry is in the upper part of the Spergen formation, a few feet of the overlying St. Louis formation being exposed at the top of the face. This property was formerly worked only as an open quarry, but with an increase in the thickness of the overburden, and the demand for high-grade, oolitic limestone, tunnels have been driven in the face on the main oolitic bed. Production is also being maintained from the open quarry. As developed it measures about 600 feet long, in a northeast-southwest direction; 150 feet wide and 80 feet from top to the bottom of the face. The beds of magnesian limestone overlying and underlying the oolitic limestone serve as parting planes in quarrying. The following general section is exposed along the north face of the quarry.
“Section Upper Part of Spergen Formation in Quarry of Ste. Genevieve Lime and Quarry Company.
Overburden, red cherty soil - 6 - 11 feet thick.
St. Louis formation
Limestone, light bluish-gray, crystalline, slightly oolitic - 35 - 38 feet.
Limestone, buff, finely crystalline, magnesian - 3 feet.
Limestone, white, soft, very oolitic, cross-bedded, marked by well-defined stylolites, crystals of calcite common in cross-bedded portions - 18- 22 feet.
Limestone, magnesian, buff, slightly crystalline - 1 - 3 feet.
Limestone, gray, crystalline, slightly oolitic - 25 feet.
“The upper part of the face shows mud-filled joint planes and solution channels. Occasionally these extend down some 40 feet into the tunnels from which the white oolitic limestone is being removed. The underground workings are at present confined to the high-grade oolitic limestone. The headings are driven 22 feet high.
“The plant is equipped with seven vertical stack kilns capable of producing 185 tons of lime per day. Five kilns are fired by producer gas manufactured in individual units, and two by Ward type machines. The hydrator for the production of hydrated lime is the Clyde type machine. A Raymond pulverizer is used for grinding the quicklime, after which, the product is dumped, and conveyed to a blower which sizes the material to the desired fineness. The larger and heavier particles are sold for agricultural lime. The company has recently installed a Webster Hammer Mill for crushing limestone not suited for burning into high-grade lime. The crushed stone, 95 per cent of which passes through 10 mesh, is sold for agricultural limestone. The unit is rated at 25 tons per hour of crushed limestone. Storage bins for uncrushed rock, and bins for crushed rock are a part of the mill. The product is sold under the trade name of ‘Agstone.’ The company has under consideration plans for adding certain features to the present kilns to insure a more uniform product and a decrease in operating costs.”
“The United States government operates a quarry two miles north of Ste. Genevieve in No. 146, T. 38, R. 9 E., United States Survey. The quarry consists of two openings separated by a narrow strip of rock. Together they extend one-half to three-fourths of a mile along the river bluff, constituting by far the largest quarry now operated in the State. The quarry was opened in 1892 and has been worked each year when river improvement work has been done. The land is owned by Andrew Wilder and Herman Weber to whom the government pays two cents a yard royalty.
“The strata dip from 2-3° south. With the exception of from fifteen to twenty feet of flinty limestone, constituting the lower beds of the north opening, the same strata are quarried in both.
“The following is a description of the beds in the south opening from top to bottom:
20-40 ft. - Clay stripping.
5 ft. - Thinly bedded, shelly, dark gray limestone.
16 ft. - Crystalline, gray limestone. The different beds vary somewhat in texture.
14 ft. - Similar to beds above. Separates into a number of beds, which vary in thickness up to two feet.
16 ft. - Finely crystalline, gray limestone, showing cross bedding.
5 ft. - Soft, argillaceous stone. Weathers very rapidly. Has a decided blue color.
6 ft. - Thick bedded dark gray, medium to coarsely crystalline limestone which works well.
4-6 ft. - Finely crystalline, gray limestone, containing small black nodules of flint.
3 ft. - Gray limestone, containing an occasional nodule of black flint. Consists of an upper bed of one foot and a lower of two feet.
12 ft. - Thinly bedded, finely crystalline, gray limestone, containing small, black flint nodules. This stone requires very little sledging after being blasted.
6 ft. - Heavily bedded gray limestone. This ledge is difficult to work.
“Fluorite was noted along a number of the minor joints. A small amount of Bauxite is reported as occurring in the quarry, although none was noted when the quarry was inspected. The stone is covered with very heavy stripping, which is removed very cheaply by hydraulic power, the clay being washed over the face of the quarry into the river.
“The entire output is used for rip rap along the Mississippi river. The stone is hauled by cars to the river where it is loaded upon large river barges. The St. Louis and San Francisco railroad now skirts the base of these bluffs, affording an excellent opportunity for getting out crushed stone for ballast and concrete work.
“About 280 men are employed and 1,000 cubic yards of crushed stone are produced per day of eight hours. Employees are paid $1.12 per day and board or $1.64 without board. Geo. W. Crane is superintendent of the quarry.”
“Western Lime Works. This company operates two quarries in the upper part of the Spergen formation, on the north side of North Gabouri Creek, about two miles west of Ste. Genevieve. The new quarry is 300 feet long in a north-south direction and 260 feet wide in an east-west direction. The maximum height of the limestone face is 47 feet, capped by cherty clay and loess overburden up to 12 feet in thickness. The upper 10 feet of the face consists of gray, crystalline, slightly oolitic limestone, underlain by approximately 20 feet of more oolitic limestone, containing fine crystals of calcite, beneath which is a gray, hard, crystalline, lightly oolitic limestone having a thickness of 15 feet. No beds of yellow magnesian limestone were noted in the face at the time of the examination. However, large pieces were seen on the dump, and beds of this stone are no doubt locally present.
“The upper 15 to 20 feet of the quarry, particularly the west face, is cut by many vertical joints and solution channels along bedding planes. These openings are filled with dark red, sticky, joint clay, which is troublesome in quarrying, and results in some waste rock. The lower part of the face appears to be solid, except in the south part, where it slopes toward the valley and is less than 10 feet high. The general dip of the strata in this quarry is to the southeast. This property is worked as an open quarry, the cherty clay overburden being removed, at the time of the examination, by shoveling into small dump cars. As the face is extended into the hill, additional facilities will probably be required for handling the increased thickness. Holes are drilled by means of a small churn drill, and shot with black powder and dynamite. The larger pieces are block-holed by compressed air drills and reduced to desired size by shooting. The stone is loaded by hand and trucked to the plant, located in the town of Ste. Genevieve.
“This company also operates a quarry just south of the one described above. It has been in operation for a number of years, and until recently furnished all the stone required at the plant. The quarry has been developed in a northeast and southwest direction, and measures 600 feet long by 150-175 feet wide. About 40 feet of the upper part of the Spergen limestone has been worked. The formation is similar to that described in the new quarry. Jointing is present under the overburden, and solution channels are present, one near the floor of the quarry being quite persistent.
“The plant is located east of the St. Louis-San Francisco Railroad in the town of Ste. Genevieve. It consists of six vertical stack kilns, four of which are fired by producer gas from individual units, the other two being equipped with Ward patented semi-producer gas machines.
“The kilns are charged from an inclined railway running up to the charging floor at the top of the kilns. The burned product is removed through end draws at the base of the kilns. The plant has a capacity of 120 tons per day. It is equipped with a hydrator for the manufacture of hydrated lime.”
“I have no information on accessibility or about remains at the site of the Western Lime Works. Ca 1930, the newer of two quarries was 300’ x 260’. The maximum height of the limestone face was 47’, capped by cherty clay and loess overburden up to 12’ in thickness. The older quarry was about 600 x 150’-176’.
“By 1928, six vertical stack steel kilns, with capacity of 120 tons per day, were in operation at the Western Lime Works. The plant as located east of the St. Louis & San Francisco Railroad in the town of Ste. Genevieve. The plant was also equipped with a hydrator for the manufacture of hydrated lime.”
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