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Missouri Building Stones & Geology in 1880

Excerpts from the

Report on The Building Stones of The United States, and Statistics of the Quarry Industry for 1880

By George W. Hawes, Curator of the Department of Mineralogy and Lithology at the National Museum

And by F. W. Sperr and Thomas C. Kelly

Joint Production of the Census Office and the National Museum.


Chapter I.  Introduction, by Dr. George W. Hawes.
(pp. 1)

“Materials for building may be divided into two classes, natural and artificial.  Of the former class may be mentioned, as the principal members, wood and stone, and of the latter class, brick, artificial stone, and iron.  The industry of extracting stone for building purposes has been, for convenience in this report, denominated the quarry industry.  This term is not accurately descriptive, since all the materials extracted from quarries or open mines are not here described.  Coal, metallic ores, limestone when quarried for lime or for fertilizing, and phosphate of lime when quarried for the latter purpose, may be noted as exceptions.

“The importance of this investigation will be recognized when it is known that the subject has received little or no attention in this country, although immense sums are spent annually upon stone as a material in construction.

“The first, and indeed the only attempt, so far as known, to bring into notice our resources in building stone was made at the late centennial exposition at Philadelphia, when a general invitation was sent to quarrymen to forward specimens for exhibition.  This was generally responded to, and a beautiful collection was the result; but it was by no means exhaustive or representative, inasmuch as it was a purely voluntary collection.

“Many experiments upon the strength of building stone have been made, notably by the officers of the United states engineer corps, and the results, published only in a fragmentary way, are more or less inaccessible.  Strength, however, is but one of the factors which determine the relative value of stone.  The factor, primarily is its accessibility, as the most valuable stone is of but little use for extensive building operations if far from water or railroad transportation.  Next in importance is its durability, as well as its capability of resisting climatic influences; and this is a subject upon which very little has been said or written.  It is a subject upon which it is extremely difficult to experiment, and yet in this respect it is most desirable that we should possess information.  Such knowledge can be gained only by experience, and in many cases dearly-bought experience, and it is therefore important that all facts relating to the durability of stone under the influences of climate should be collated and brought into juxtaposition with one another.

Excerpts Relating to the State of Missouri from the Chapter Entitled, “Statistics of Building Stones”

Table I.  General Statistics of the Quarrying Industries of the United States, 1880. Table I. General Statistics of the Quarrying Industries of the United States, 1880.

Table II.  Statistics of the Quarrying Industries of the United States, Showing Number of Quarries and Production, by Kinds of Rock and By States and Territories:  1880.

Table II.  Statistics of the Quarrying Industries of the United States - Continued.

Table II. Statistics of the Quarrying Industries of the United States

Table III.  Extent To Which Building Stones and Slates and Quarries for Appliances.  (Limestone & Marble, Sandstone, Crystalline Siliceous Rocks, and Slate.)

Purposes of Construction in the United States, and the Capital, Labor, and Devoted Thereto.  (Limestone & Marble, Sandstone, Crystalline Siliceous Rocks, and Slate.)

Table III. Extent To Which Building Stones and Slates and Quarries for Appliances
Table IV.  Tables indicating the Amount and Kinds of Rock in the Different States. Table IV. Tables indicating the Amount and Kinds of Rock in the Different States.
Table IV.  Tables indicating the Amount and Kinds of Rock in the Different States - Continued. Table IV. Tables indicating the Amount and Kinds of Rock in the Different States (continued)

(* Please note that not all of the columns are transcribed below.  See the image of the table for the complete information for each quarry.)

Missouri - Crystalline Siliceous Rocks.

  1. The Allen & Smith Quarry, Knob Lick, Saint Francois County, Granite/Hornblende granite, color:  Gray and red; quarry opened in 1872.
  2. The Philip Schneider & Co. Quarry, 4 miles west of Iron Mountain, Iron County, Granite/Granite, color:  Red; quarry opened in 187

Missouri - Marble and Limestone.

  1. Moran’s Quarry, City of St. Louis, Saint Louis County, Limestone/Dolomite, color: drab; quarry opened in 1875.
  2. The Daniel Cavenaugh Quarry, City of St. Louis, Saint Louis County, Limestone/Dolomite, color: drab; quarry opened in 1866.
  3. The Tim Evans Quarry, City of St. Louis, Saint Louis County, Limestone/Dolomite, color: drab; quarry opened in 1879.
  4. The Joseph Webber Quarry, City of St. Louis, Saint Louis County, Limestone, color: drab; quarry opened in 1875.
  5. The Michael Kinealy Quarry, City of St. Louis, Saint Louis County, Limestone/Dolomite limestone, color: drab; quarry opened in 1875.
  6. The James McGrath Quarry, City of St. Louis, Saint Louis County, Limestone/Dolomite limestone, color: drab; quarry opened in 1845.
  7. The A. O. Engelmann & Co. Quarry, City of St. Louis, Saint Louis County, Limestone/Dolomite, color: drab; quarry opened in 1871.
  8. The Diederich Scharinghaus Quarry, City of St. Louis, Saint Louis County, Limestone/Magnesian limestone and limestone, color: drab; quarry opened in 1875.
  9. The Jos. O’Meara & Brother Quarry, City of St. Louis, Saint Louis County, Limestone, color: drab; quarry opened in 1875.
  10. The William Gorman Quarry, City of St. Louis, Saint Louis County, Limestone, color: drab; quarry opened in 1872
  11. The Hugh Carlin Quarry, City of St. Louis, Saint Louis County, Limestone/Limestone, color: drab; quarry opened in 1864.
  12. The Bowdern & Chs. Hogan Quarry, City of St. Louis, Saint Louis County, Limestone/Limestone, color: drab; quarry opened in 1860.
  13. The Bambrick & Morihan Quarry, City of St. Louis, Saint Louis County, Limestone/Limestone, color: drab; quarry opened in 1878.
  14. The Schrainka & Veiths Quarry, City of St. Louis, Saint Louis County, Limestone/Limestone, color: drab; quarry opened in 1850.
  15. The Philip F. Stifel Quarry, City of St. Louis, Saint Louis County, Limestone/Dolomite, color: drab; quarry opened in 1873.
  16. The Henry Perkinson Quarry, City of St. Louis, Saint Louis County, Limestone/Limestone, color: drab; quarry opened in 1860.
  17. The John McKenna Quarry, City of St. Louis, Saint Louis County, Limestone/Limestone, color: drab; quarry opened in 1860.
  18. The John Bowdern & Son Quarry, City of St. Louis, Saint Louis County, Limestone/Limestone, color: drab; quarry opened in 1875.
  19. The J. O’Meara Quarry, City of St. Louis, Saint Louis County, Limestone/Limestone, color: drab; quarry opened in 1845.
  20. The Gottleib Eyermann Quarry, City of St. Louis, Saint Louis County, Limestone/Dolomite, color: drab; quarry opened in 1850.
  21. The Nicholas Lamb Quarry, Rosedale, Saint Louis County, Limestone/Limestone, color: drab; quarry opened in 1878.
  22. The H. W. Kolkmyer Quarry, Jefferson City, Cole County, Limestone/Limestone, color: light drab; quarry opened in 1876.
  23. The Russell Quarry, Boonville, Cooper County, Limestone/Limestone, color: dark drab; quarry opened in 1856.
  24. The Richard Anderson, lessee of Smith’s Quarry, Sedalia, Pettis County, Limestone/Magnesian limestone; also dolomite, color: brown and drab; quarry opened in 1866.
  25. The C. B. Jordan Quarry, 4 miles south of Clinton, Henry County, Flag-stone/Argillaceous limestone, color: dark drab; quarry opened in 1878.
  26. The John Bauman Quarry, East of Kansas City, Jackson County, Limestone/Magnesian limestone, color: gray; quarry opened in 1869.
  27. The James Dowling Quarry, Bluffs of Kansas City, Jackson County, Limestone/Limestone, color: drab; quarry opened in 1865.

Missouri - Sandstone.

  1. The White Rock Quarry Company Quarry, Miami Station, Carroll County, Sandstone, color: light gray; quarry opened in 1839.
  2. The Bruce & Veitch Quarry, Warrensburg, Johnson County, gray, color: Sandstone; quarry opened in 1871
  3. The Pickle Brothers Quarry, Warrensburg, Johnson County, Sandstone, color: gray; quarry opened in 1871
  4. The Gebhardt Quarry, Clinton, Henry County, Sandstone, color: light brown; quarry opened in 1877
  5. The Sainte Genevieve Sandstone and Granite Company Quarry, 4 miles southwest of Sainte Genevieve, Sainte Genevieve County, Sandstone, color: light buff; quarry opened in 1869.

Missouri. (State Section)

(pp. 265-274)

By G. C. Broadhead.

General Geological Section

General Geological Section.


“This includes the granites and porphyries and their associated and intrusive beds in southeast Missouri.  The granites are generally coarse in texture, feldspathic and quartzose, deficient in mica, red in color, or else of various shades of gray, sometimes blending into a reddish-gray.  They crop out on massive beds in the northern portions of Iron and Madison counties and in the southern part of Saint François county, with isolated exposures in Sainte Genevieve and Crawford counties.  They afford our best quality of building stones.  In some localities there is evidence of disintegration and decomposition on a grand scale; as, for example, 8 miles west of Fredericktown.  At this place a well sunk 75 feet in depth passed entirely through granitic sand.  In the western part of Madison county, at Lloyd’s, south of Blue mountain, we also find evidence of considerable disintegration.  These are probably due to chemical causes.

“The phenomenon of rocking-stones is exhibited near the Ozark quarries, 4 miles southwest from Iron Mountain.

“In the northern part of Madison county, east of the Saint François river, gray porphyritic granite appears over an undulating district near the Iron Mountain railroad.  West of the Saint François river, the red granite rises into mountain peaks.

“A syenitic granite forms a ‘shut-in”* on Saint François river near the Einstein mine, forming the ‘rapids’ in Saint François  river.  It is traversed at this place by a dike of black dolerite 44 inches wide bearing S. 60° W.  A few miles north of this, also on the river bank, we find it containing numerous specks and scales of micaceous iron and also much pyrites.  Half a mile west the granite is traversed by a narrow dike of black dolerite 11 inches wide at the north end and 4 inches at the south end.  From the north end it bears S. 32° W. for 30 feet, thence it gradually curves to S. 82° W. a distance of 5 feet.  The adjacent granite wall has been slightly darkened and indurated by contact.

(* Page 266 footnote:  A local term signifying that steep, rocky cliffs approach close to each bank of the stream.)

“At the ‘Lloyd’ place, in Sec. 15 T. 33, R. 5 E., a shaft in decomposed syenite has revealed a vertical dike 18 inches wide bearing northeast and southwest.  Two hundred feet northwest another shaft reveals a north and south dike of similar rock 2 feet wide.  The dike is of a gray dioritic character.  A quarter of a mile east there is a greenstone dike 8 feet wide bearing a little west of north.  Washings of sandy debris thrown out show a good deal of deep black magnetic-iron sand.  Washings in the roads at several places within a few miles also reveal a good deal of this sand.  In the southern part of Saint François county, west of Saint François river, a pit has been sunk on a rich deposit of micaceous iron which, being very soft, was at first supposed to be graphite.

“The granite is also sometimes traversed by quartz veins, as in Sec. 2, T. 33, R. 5 E., and Sec. 6, T. 33, R. 6 E.; also on Cedar creek, where very large quartz crystals have been obtained. At the Einstein ‘silver’ mines, in Madison county, the rocks indicate an association of diorite and serpentine.  The exact position and relation of the beds could not be ascertained, as all work had been suspended, but the specimens left include serpentine, green, and violet-colored fluor, clear and white quartz, argentiferous galena, wolfram, iron pyrites, and zinc-blende.  The massive rocks near the river are red and gray granite, with red porphyry just west of them.

“Only recently has much attention been directed to the quarrying of granite.  There are but two quarries worked to any extent, the stone from which is used for paving streets and for general building purposes, principally in the city of Saint Louis.  The stone from a quarry 4 miles west of Iron Mountain, Iron county, has been used in a pavement on Washington avenue, Saint Louis, for about 6 years, and the pavement is still in good order.  The flagging around the Southern hotel, at Saint Louis, is also of this granite; also the front of the residence of Mr. Charles G. Stiefel.  The amount of granite which may be obtained in this locality is practically inexhaustible.  The eastern portion is a stratum of gray granite probably a mile in width.  It has not been found farther north, but extends southwardly into Madison county for a distance of about 5 miles.  The red or reddish-gray granite lies west of this, and is probably several miles in width, extending southwardly into Madison county, where it is wider in its east and west extension and more red in color.  It extends south more than 10 miles, nearly to the mouth of the Little Saint Francis river.

“The granite from the quarry at Knob Lick, Saint François county, is a coarse, feldspathic rock, made up of red feldspar and limpid quartz, with rarely a dark-colored bronze or black mica.  It occasionally contains lenticula or ellipsoidal pockets of fine-grained, micaceous, gray granite, and these spots are often pyritiferous.  Otherwise the quality of the rock on the whole seems good.

“On the surface there are in several places large, rounded bowlders, some 20 feet high, resting on a small foundation, and some rocking-stones also occur.  These large masses are roughly outlined and sent to market for building purposes.  The smaller blocks are rough-dressed into 6 inch paving blocks and shipped to Saint Louis.  Vertical joints sometimes occur; and a discoloration 3 inches sometimes appears.  One inch of the weathered crust occasionally crumbles off.

“Feldspar has for several years been taken from the Sainte Genevieve quarries and used in glazing certain ironware.

“Porphyries are often exposed in Madison, Iron, Wayne, Saint François, and Reynolds counties, and form the highest peaks in this region, being elevated from 200 to 660 feet above the valley.  The foot of these mountains is generally flanked by porphyritic conglomerate, or limestone and sandstone of Potsdam age.  The testimony of the rocks goes to show that previous to the formation of sandstone and limestone the country presented the appearance of rough porphyry knobs rising from 1,000 to 1,500 feet above the sea.  In these depressions was the Potsdam sea, in its early ages quite tempestuous, as is evidenced by the conglomerates and coarse sandstone, chiefly formed of eroded fragments from the Archæan rocks.  These sandstone occupied the shore-line of the Potsdam sea.  In the course of time these waters became more quiet, and calcareous sediments with occasional sandy matter were formed; but observation shows that this deposit in no place extends along the Archæan slopes over 350 feet above the present valleys.

“The porphyries, in their typical and most common form, seem to be a fine-grained, impalpable mixture of orthoclase and quartz, generally of a red, brownish, or purple color, sometimes dark gray or black, and porphyritic chiefly from the presence of feldspar crystals and often grains of crystallized quartz.  Most of the porphyries on their edges show a shade of red; many of them are banded and show cleavage planes; in some we find well-marked lines of stratification, and some even show ripple marks, indicating a sedimentary origin.  At Pilot Knob the porphyry inclose rounded pebbles, and epidote, hornblende, and serpentine occur; also beds and veins of specular iron represented on a large scale at Pilot Knob, Iron Mountain, and Sheppard mountain, some of the ore at the latter place being magnetic.  Slate, resembling roofing slate in character, occurs on Buck mountain, in Iron county, and dikes of diorite and dolerite are sometimes seen.

“At the so-called tin mountain, in Madison county, the porphyry is traversed by coarse dioritic dikes and black dolerite, and on the waters of Captain’s creek a dike of coarse syenitic greenstone, 75 feet in width, cuts the porphyry.  In Sec. 16, T. 32, R. 6 E., there is an interesting exhibit of a series of dikes traversing dark porphyry (see Fig. 8 in Missouri Geological report, 1874).  Against the porphyry wall on the east are 10 ½ feet of greenstone, next west a few inches of dolerite, then 4 feet of porphyry, then 2 feet of greenstone, then porphyry.  The course of the dike is S. 45° W.

“In Iron county, in Sec. 9, T. 32, R. 4 E., a dike of hornblende rock, standing several feet above the general surface like a wall, can be traced north and south for one-eighth of a mile.  On Gray’s mountain, in Wayne county, and in the southeast part of Iron county we find exposed beds of steatite.  In the northeast part of Reynolds county and the northern part of Madison county eruptive porphyry has been found of a gray color, and containing large crystals of white feldspar.

“In Iron county are found amygdaloidal rocks flanked with porphyry.  The amygdules are of a white mineral.  A few miles southward the Porphyry contains blue crystals.

“A good exhibition of a dolerite dike in porphyry is on Mine La Motte property, at Jack diggings, and there is another dike at a cave on Rock creek.  The porphyry is generally very hard and difficult to quarry.”

Sedimentary Rocks.

“A section of the unaltered Sedimentary in connection with the Archæan of southeast Missouri is about as follows:

  1. Twenty feet of coarse, sometimes vitreous, sandstone, the second sandstone of Missouri geologists.
  2. One hundred and twenty-five feet chert beds, with some clay and quartzite; contains Murchisonia straparollus, orthoceras, and a few species of trilobites, typical of the calciferous sand-rock.
  3. One hundred to 300 feet of magnesian limestone, chert, and quartz, crystallized in drusy cavities; corresponds to the Third Magnesian limestone.
  4. Magnesian limestone, 100 to 150 feet.
  5. Fifty feet gritstone and lingual beds, to be referred to the Potsdam age.
  6. Ozark marble, 5 to 50 feet.
  7. Five to 90 feet sandstone and conglomerate.
  8. Porphyry, }
  9. Granite, } Archæan

“The Lower magnesian limestone, with the lingual beds just below, incloses the lead mines at Saint Joseph, in Saint François county, and also the mines at Mine La Motte.  The galena is found with these rocks in horizontal beds between the layers of limestone, or occurs as a replacement of limestone beds, or is disseminated in the limestone; and these I regard as by far the richest lead deposits of the west.

“The Third Magnesian limestone may be found over the greater part of 20 counties of Missouri, often forming mural escarpments along the streams, and sometime extending to the highest hills.  It is generally lead-bearing.  It is both coarse and finely crystalline, and is often a pure dolomite of a bluish-gray or flesh color.  It very rarely contains shale beds; but, especially in the upper part, there are some thick chert beds.  At the lead mines of Washington county it is often cavernous, and includes numerous drusy cavities lined with minutely-crystallized quartz.  At some of the mines, especially those of central Missouri, it has undergone a decomposition, and quantities of dolomitic sand are thrown out.  It is well exposed along the Osage river from 10 miles above its mouth to the line of Benton county; on the Gasconade from 20 miles above its mouth to its head, and on the two Pineys.  It is seen on Osage river, first near Castle rock; passing up stream it gradually rises, and at the south line of Osage county it attains a thickness of 180 feet.  It is often cavernous in the middle and lower beds, and sometimes forms natural bridges across streams.  Many of the caves occur in this limestone, and saltpeter has been made from the clay deposits on the floor of the caves.  Of note we might name Friede’s cave, 10 miles northwest of Rolla.  Other caves are found in Maries, Pulaski, Miller, Ozark, and in other counties of south Missouri.  This formation also seems to be the source of many large springs in south Missouri, from which flow those bold, swift, clear streams, affording unsurpassed water-power.  On the Osage, in Miller, Morgan, and Camden counties, the Third Magnesian limestone forms steep, mural escarpments and wild, picturesque scenery.

“The second sandstone lies next above; it is generally coarse, whitish, or slightly brown, tinged by iron, occurring more often in thick beds, and affords a good building stone.  It is often the top rock on the cherty hills of south Missouri; and the pineries, when found, generally grow here.  It is also the formation containing most of the iron deposits of central Missouri.

“The second Magnesian limestone chiefly forms the Missouri bluffs from Saint Charles county to the west line of Cole county, often extending from the foot of the bluffs to their top.  It contains very few beds suitable for building purposes, but the lower 25 feet are thickly bedded, some dolomitic, and with some intercalated beds of sandstone, affording a very good coarse building stone; for example, near Rolla, at Hermann, the Osage and Moreau, near Pacific railroad, at Jefferson City, and near Stoutland, in Camden county.  But above these beds there is scarcely 1 foot in 50 feet of this formation suitable for building purposes.  This is also occasionally lead-bearing.  Most of the limestones in the upper half are readily acted on by frost.  The middle and upper portions contain numerous green and drab shale beds, with many intercalations of concretionary chert, sometimes assuming curious grotesque forms.

“The saccharoidal or first sandstone is found along the Mississippi hills from near Sainte Genevieve via Plattin creek, through Jefferson county, the western part of Saint Louis county, thence up the Missouri river, chiefly capping bluffs nearly as far west as Jefferson City.  It is also pushed up to view on Sandy creek, in Lincoln county, near Auburn, and on the north line of Lincoln, west of Prairieville, and on Spencer creek, Ralls county, near the Saint Louis, Hannibal, and Keokuk railroad.  It is generally a pure white sandstone, containing 99 per cent. of silica.  It is well exposed at Crystal City glass-works, where it is used in the manufacture of fine plate-glass.  At this place it is pure white and soft, and about 40 feet are exposed.  at Pacific, Franklin county, it is well exposed for 100 feet, the upper 70 feet being a pure white soft sand; the lower part is tinged with oxide of iron.  Due north of this, on the Missouri bluffs, Saint Charles county, it is 133 feet thick.  Thirty miles east of this, or a few miles west of Saint Louis, borings reached it at 1,300 feet below the surface.

“This sandstone is regarded as superior for glass-making, but it is often not sufficiently coherent for building purposes, though there are a few exceptions, namely, the stone used on the Missouri Pacific railway at Berger and between Hermann and Gasconade.  Some quarries on the hills near by afford a beautiful pink-banded sandstone.  Obscure fragments of a large species of orthoceras have been met with in Gasconade county, some of which measure 8 inches in diameter, others near 2 feet.

“The First Magnesian limestone is found in Pike, Ralls, Lincoln, Saint Charles, Warren, Callaway, Boone, Franklin, Saint Louis, Pettis, Jefferson, Sainte Genevieve, and probably in a few other counties.  Its greatest thickness is about 150 feet.  It is generally easy to work, and forms a durable building stone of some beauty.  Its prevailing colors are drab and buff.  It caps the hills at Pacific, Franklin county.  Missouri college, Warren county, is built of it, and very good quarries can be opened near by.

“The Black River and Bird-eye formation is probably found in Lincoln, Pike, Ralls, Saint Charles, Saint Louis, Warren, Franklin, Jefferson, Perry, Sainte Genevieve, and Cape Girardeau counties, but is wanting in central and southwestern Missouri.  The upper beds are often full of winding vermiform cavities.  The lower often have minute specks of calcite, and are likewise varied in color and would sometimes polish into a handsome marble.  Such are found in Warren county on the hills near affluents to the Missouri, and are well exposed near heads of Tuque creek and Charette.  The colors are drab, pink, purple, flesh-color, and buff.  Another handsome variety found in Warren county has a brown appearance, with dark, almost black, winding lines, as of fucoids.  Some of these would undoubtedly look handsome if polished, and are also durable.  Ormoceras Tenuifolium and other characteristic fossils have been found.

“The Trenton beds, lying above the Black River beds, occur generally in thin layers of a bluish-drab color and may generally be found resting upon the Black River beds.  At Danville, Missouri, and on Loutre river, near west line of Montgomery county, also at some places in the northern part of Lincoln county, it occurs whitish or else variegated, with many specks of calc spar disseminated, and appears very well when polished.  The upper beds are almost entirely made up of numerous fossils, including Orthis, Pleurotomaria Murchisonia, with occasionally Ceraurus pleurex anthemus.

“The Upper Trenton or Receptaculite limestone is found from Cape Girardeau, along the river counties, in Jefferson county, thence northwest to the town of Pacific and along the Missouri bluffs from Saint Charles county to the eastern part of Warren county, thinning out westwardly.  It is also found in Lincoln, Pike, and Ralls counties, resting on Trenton.  It is quite cavernous in these counties, but in the counties on the Missouri and lower Mississippi it is a good building stone, and it also burns into an excellent quality of lime.  The upper beds are brownish-gray, the lower a white, crystalline limestone.  In Warren county the upper 20 feet is a light gray, the lower 8 feet a dark brown limestone.  It corresponds in age with the Galena group in northern Illinois, but is not galeniferous in Missouri.

“The Hudson River formation is found only in some of the counties on the Mississippi river.  The beds are chiefly shaly, and are sometimes very pyritiferous.  I regard this group as the source of most of the mineral springs of northeast Missouri.  It affords some good flag-stone beds in Lincoln and Pike counties.

“The Upper Silurian is best developed in Perry and Sainte Genevieve counties, where occur several hundred feet of drab and variegated limestone, which looks handsome when polished.  In Pike county we find a drab and brownish limestone, sometimes in very thick beds, closely resembling the Grafton beds, and as useful for building purposes.  We find this at Bowling Green, Paynesville, and between Frankfort and Louisiana.  In Warren and Montgomery counties and the eastern part of Callaway county there are about 20 feet of a coarse, gray, crinoidal limestone, which is said to be a good ‘fire rock”.

“The Devonian is not of sufficient importance to take rank among building stones.  It is best developed in Callaway county, where it affords many fine organic remains.

Sub-Carboniferous. - In the lowest, the Chouteau or Kinderhook group, we find at its base, at Louisiana, 55 feet of dove-colored, compact limestone, having a conchoidal fracture.  This rock has every appearance of a lithographic limestone, and was so named by Professor Swallow.  In other portions of the state the same limestone is represented by at thickly-bedded dolomite, and as such it is found on Sac river, in Cedar county, and at Taborville, in Saint Clair county.

“Above this limestone are the vermicular sandstone and shales, characterized by winding, vermiform cavities from northeast to southwest Missouri.  It is a friable, easily-worked sandstone, sometimes affording good beds for building purposes.  The thickness, including the shale beds, is about 75 feet.  Above this is the true Chouteau limestone, the upper beds of a coarse, gray, and sometimes ferruginous, crinoidal limestone, containing Leptœna depressa and Spirifer Marionensis; below this is a thickly-bedded magnesian and sometimes argillaceous limestone, containing geodes of quartz and calcite and occasional chert beds.  Where not too subject to frost action it affords a useful building material; as such it is found in Pike, Lincoln, Ralls, Boone, Callaway, Pettis, Cooper, and Greene counties.  The lower part is formed chiefly of thin layers of dove-colored limestone, which was seen 100 feet thick a few miles west of Sedalia.

“The next above is the Burlington group, called by Professor Swallow the Encrinital.  In Saint Charles county we find at the top about 17 feet of chert, with alternations of red clay.  The middle beds are gray and coarse; the lower gray and brown, generally coarse and encrinital.  Crinoid stems are commonly diffused throughout, the lower strata sometimes abounding in well-preserved Crinoideœ.  This group is found at Burlington, Iowa, Quincy, Illinois, Louisiana, Missouri, and is well exposed on the Mississippi bluffs in counties north of Saint Louis, and from the western part of Saint Charles county, in remote hills, as far as Howard.  It is occasionally met with in southwest Missouri, in Cedar, Dade, Greene, and Christian counties, where it is often cavernous, containing large and beautiful caves.  The streams in Greene and Christian counties owe their origin chiefly to springs in this formation.

“The upper beds of the Keokuk group are sometimes shaly, with geodes of quartz, and some of them are quite beautiful.  The lower beds are gray and bluish-gray, with Lenticular and concretionary chert beds.  Archimedes, Hemipronites crenistria, and crinoid stems are numerous, and some fish teeth are found.  This is the limestone of Keokuk, Iowa.  It is found in the central part of Saint Charles county, in Saint Louis, Boone, Howard, Monroe, and Cooper counties, and is especially well developed in southwest Missouri, from Henry county southwest.  It is the lead-bearing rock of Dade, Jasper, Cedar, Newton, and Lawrence, and is also found in McDonald and Barry counties.  It is, in part, equivalent to the siliceous group of Tennessee, and is well developed in Benton county, Arkansas.  It is probably 300 feet thick in its greatest thickness, and affords good quarries for building purposes.  The Saint Louis group is best developed in Saint Louis and Saint Charles, and is also found in Lincoln, Lewis, Clark and Knox counties. It is generally a compact, dove-colored, or finely-crystalline ash-gray limestone, with generally a splintery fracture.  It is much finer grained than any other group of the sub-Carboniferous.  It is also cavernous in Saint Louis, Saint Charles, and Lincoln counties, as shown by occasional funnel-shaped sink-holes which communicate with subterranean passages.  The outlets of these sink-holes about Saint Louis have generally become filled, and ponds are the result.  The characteristic fossils are Melonites, Lithostrotion, Productus, and Hemipronites erenistria, with numerous Bryozoa, with sometimes beautiful Crinoideœ.  The lower or Warsaw division abounds in Archimedes and Pentremites.

“The Chester group of 200 to 300 feet of limestone, with a sandstone, is found in Perry and Sainte Genevieve.  The sandstone, often ferruginous, is found in northeast and southwest Missouri.  Good quarries of this sandstone may be opened near Netonia, Newton county; near Lamonte, Pettis county; in eastern and northern portions of Cedar and near Lamine, in Cooper county, and a very good quarry is worked near Sainte Genevieve.

“The Coal Measures include the Upper Coal Measures (barren), 1,300 feet; Middle Coal Measures (productive), 320 feet; Lower Coal Measures (productive), 300 feet.

“In Atchison there are exposed 180 feet of rock, including, at top, 40 feet of sandstone and red shale beds, with limestone and beds of calcareous shales below, containing well-preserved remains of mollusca, some of them presenting a strong Permian type.  Below these are chiefly shale beds, with some limestone and occasionally sandstone, but with very little coal or even bituminous shale.  There are thicker limestone beds in the Upper Measures than below, and they are also better for building purposes than those of the Middle and Lower Measures.  Nevertheless some (especially the blue limestones) contain a good deal of pyrites, and are necessarily inferior.  Those most suitable may be quarried at Kansas City, Jackson county, and in Cass, Clay, Platte, Andrew, Holt, Nodaway, Atchison, Daviess, Livingston, Mercer, and Harrison counties.

“The middle series are chiefly sandstone, with some limestone beds and some coal beds of workable thickness, but rarely contain good beds of building stone.  The Lower Coal Measures are the productive measures; they also contain beds of valuable sandstone for building, with numerous outcrops in southwest Missouri.  Much of it is also suitable for making grindstones.  The quarries near Miami station, in Carroll county, and near Meadville, Linn county, are the best in north Missouri, the others being inferior.  In southwest Missouri most of the sandstone are bituminous.

“Recapitulating, we would briefly say that the granite of southeast Missouri is the best material for building purposes.  The pure limestones are generally of good quality.  But few of those of the Upper Carboniferous are durable, nor are many of the beds of the Second Magnesian limestone.  The sandstones are most eagerly sought after, chiefly because they are easy to quarry and to work into shape.  They also answer better for city work.  The best include the Potsdam of southeast Missouri, found in Madison, Saint François, and Iron counties; also, the sandstone of the Carboniferous, found among the Lower Coal Measures of southwest Missouri, chiefly in Barton, Vernon, Cedar, Saint Clair, Henry, Johnson, and Carroll counties.  The second sandstone along the Osage and on hills of southwest Missouri is also a good building stone.

Saint Louis Quarries. - The most extensive quarries in this state are located in and near the city of Saint Louis.  The formation is the Saint Louis division of the sub-Carboniferous period.  The extent of the quarry industry in this locality is not so much due to the superiority of the stone as to its accessibility to the Saint Louis market.  A representative section of the quarries is shown at Mr. Moran’s quarry, which shows 20 feet of loose material; 20 feet of thin, shelly limestone, in layers from 3 to 8 inches in thickness; 3 feet of brownish-colored limestone, containing some chert.  From this quarry a specimen of Productus marginicinctus, a very rare fossil peculiar to this group, has been obtained.

“The stone from this quarry is used for the construction of foundations and other ordinary building purposes, and for street pavements, especially for macadam.  The stone from the best Saint Louis quarries is strong and durable, and is also well adapted to the manufacture of lime.  Its principal use has been in the construction of foundations.  The excavation has been carried at one quarry to a depth of 60 feet, but at present the quarry is not worked to a greater depth than 40 feet, 20 feet of the lower portion of the excavation being filled with water.  A section at this quarry shows 8 feet of cap-rock; 8 feet of limestone in thin layers; 9 feet of limestone in layers 12, 4, and 2 inches thick, and below this is a massive, heavy bed of limestone; still lower the beds are from 1 foot to 2 feet thick, this being the most applicable for building purposes.  The quarry of Mr. Philip Steifel has become somewhat noted for its fine mineral specimens, including calcite, pearl-spar, dog-tooth spar, millerite, and fluor-spar.  The fluor-spar is of a yellow color; the calcite is white, or colored on the outside with millerite.  In some places the limestone has a greenish tint from the presence of nickel-sulphide.  The millerite has bunches of stray hair-like crystals of a bronze color, and each crystal is a delicate hair-like mineral.  It has been found penetrating the calcite and extending from side to side in the limestone.  It is also frequently found associated with the pearl-spar.

“Among the most valuable of these quarries as regards the quality of the material are three at Cote Brilliant, about 2 ½ miles from the city of Saint Louis.  Its development is only retarded by its being at a greater distance from the market than many of the other quarries.

“A section at one of these quarries shows 25 feet of loose material; 15 feet of gray limestone, in layers about 3 inches in thickness; 4 feet of limestone, in layers of variable thickness; 2 feet of close-grained gray limestone; five 3-inch layers of gray limestone; one 22-inch layer of gray limestone; and 15 feet of limestone below the water level.

“The best layers are pure limestone, susceptible of being quite highly polished, very strong and durable, and quite well adapted for architectural purposes.

“The formation in the quarry of Mr. Gottlieb Eyerman probably belongs to the upper portion of the Saint Louis group, though it may belong to the next higher, the Chester group.

Jefferson City Quarry. - The greater part of the quarry product is used at present by the Missouri Pacific Railroad Company for the construction of bridges; the small fragments are used for ballast, and small slabs are sold to citizens of Jefferson City for ordinary building purposes.

“The following is a section at this quarry:

  1.  Soil and clay - 6 feet.
  2.  Unevenly-bedded limestone and chert, in thin beds, suitable for ballast only - 12 feet.
  3.  Fine-grained homogeneous rock, in even thin layers, locally called ‘cotton rock’ - 4 feet.
  4.  Gray limestone with numerous small cells filled with white powder - 2 feet.
  5.  Chert beds - 2 feet 6 inches.
  6.  Drab, evenly-bedded limestone, also called cotton rock - 9 feet.
  7.  gray, hard, cellular limestone, generally preferred for bridge construction - 10 feet.

“No. 6 is similar to the rock which was used in the construction of the state-house, which was erected about forty years ago.  It is occasionally slightly discolored with stains of iron, of which minute globules and specks are seen, apparently changed from pyrites.  The layers from this rock are of quite uniform thickness, many of the 4- and 6-inch layers making a very handsome paving stone.  It has been quite extensively used in Jefferson city, where it has been termed cotton rock, by which name it is also known in other localities of this state.  The prevailing color of this rock is drab, but in some localities it has a bluish tint, and is liable to disintegrate rapidly on exposure to the action of frost.  Some of the drab layers also readily disintegrate on exposure to the weather.  The best of the material needs to be quarried early enough in the season to allow the quarry water to become dried out before the stone is exposed to the action of frost.

“No. 7 is a harder rock, and is not well adapted for cut work, though a very desirable material for heavy bridge construction, for which little dressing is necessary, and for which the qualities most desirable are those of strength and durability.  The rocks at Jefferson City may all be referred to the Calciferous sand-rock group, known in Missouri as the Second Magnesian limestone series.  Fossils are very rarely found.  A section of 200 feet may be seen at Jefferson, and only a lingual is found in the upper beds; the other beds abound in fucoids.  Lime manufactured from some of the layers possesses hydraulic properties.

Boonville Quarry is located on the bluff side of the Missouri river, just above the railroad bridge, and about 12 feet above the ordinary water-line of the river.  When the river rises to the level of the quarry operations are necessarily suspended.  The bluff rises steeply above the quarry for over 100 feet, so that the quarry cannot advance far inward on account of the rapidly-increasing amount of cap rock.  The layers of stone are generally tolerably even, and from 10 to 16 inches in thickness, with occasional partings of calcareous shale.  A vertical section of quarry rock 16 feet in thickness is exposed.  The strata dip slightly to the west.  A little to the east, at the bridge, about 30 feet of gray, cherty limestone are exposed, containing, as far as could be seen, only specimens of an Archinedipora and a turbinated coral.  The quarry rock lying above this also contains specimens of Archimedes.

Sedalia Quarry. - The product of this quarry is used locally for foundations.  The strata quarried lie at the junction of the Chouteau or Kinderhook group with the Burlington beds.  The following is a section of the quarry:

Loose material - 5 feet.

Gray ferruginous limestone, in two layers - 5 feet.

Buff limestone, shading to blue below - 3 feet.

Shales - 1 to 3 feet.

Blue limestone, with chert concretions and some masses of calcite - 5 feet.

“The floor of the quarry rests on a rock similar to the lowest which has been quarried.  The lowest beds are the least durable, the upper 5 feet of limestone being quite durable.  These two layers belong to the Burlington group, and the beds below them to the Chouteau.

“A number of small quarries have been worked in this vicinity.  From some of these blocks 4 feet thick may be obtained, all, however, containing more or less chert concretions and masses of calcite.  One of the older quarries shows much of the rock shattered by frost.

Clinton Quarry is located about 4 miles south of Clinton, Henry county.  It furnishes material to the town of Clinton, principally for sidewalk pavements.  The stone is an argillaceous limestone, and occurs in a stratum about 15 feet in thickness, and in layers from 2 to 10 inches in thickness.  The thinner layers are drab-colored throughout; the heavier layers have a lead-blue color in the interior, and those layers which have not been exposed to atmospheric action also have the lead-blue color.  Below this quarry rock occurs a seam of bituminous coal 4 feet in thickness, which is one of the best coals of southwest Missouri.  Below this again there are 9 feet of blue shales, with ironstone concretions to the level of the water in Grand river.  Similar beds occur near Brownsville, Saline county, and may be referred to the same geological age.

Kansas City Quarries. - The stratum of limestone designated in the Missouri Geological Reports as ‘No. 87, general section, Upper Coal Measures’, has been quarried extensively at quarries in bluffs of Kansa City and for 2 miles further east; also in a quarry opposite the Union depot, Kansas City, now abandoned on account of expense of stripping.  The rock is also occasionally quarried in bluffs at and above Rosedale.  Its color is generally a light gray, becoming locally a bluish-gray, and, when exposed, a lighter and often ferruginous gray.  The middle portion of about 9 feet is beautifully oolitic, and is most valuable for building; it works freely and is easily dressed.

“Below Kansas City the stripping at first is only a few feet, but of course increases as the operations extend into the bluffs.

“Limestone No. 90, Upper Coal Measures, lying a little above, is often quarried and used for ordinary foundation work, while the limestone under consideration is used for general building purposes.  It may be seen in the basement walls of the Merchants’ Exchange, the Journal office, and the building at Twelfth and Washington streets, Kansas City.  It contains the characteristic coral Campophyllum torquium (O. and S.).  It is generally evenly bedded in layers from 6 to 16 inches in thickness, and is much used in foundations.  Its is apparently durable and of more than usual strength.  Its texture is homogenous, and often has numerously-disseminated bright calc-spar specks.  The color in the quarry is a grayish-drab, weathering to a brownish-drab, and shows a brownish discoloration along the joints.

“Limestone No. 96, of Upper Coal Measures, also found here, is a bright gray rock with numerous specks and short lines of calcite.  It contains also many fossils whose shells are of pure calcite, or else the interior is nicely crystallized.  The strata are generally from 6 to 9 inches thick and of very irregular bedding.  The entire stratum is 30 feet thick.  An examination of the various quarries in Kansas City indicates that about 50,000 cubic yards of rock have been removed and used in the city during the past twelve or fourteen years.  This includes from 9,000 to 10,000 cubic yards from the bluff opposite the Union depot, 30,000 cubic yards from southwest (sic) Kansas, and the remainder from south Kansas.  The various railroads have probably taken out and used 10,000 cubic yards not included in the above.

“There is quite a number of localities in Missouri where limestone has been quarried or may be quarried, beside those in which there are actually working quarries as represented in the tables.  Three miles north of Canton, Saint Louis county, the Central Marble Stone Company has recently opened a quarry in the sub-Carboniferous formation.  The beds vary in thickness from a few inches to 8 feet.  Considerable quantities of this stone have been quarried for bridge abutments, foundations, and for flagging.  The stone has a uniform texture and gray color, but becomes darker on exposure to the atmosphere; and this may prove a defect if the discoloration does not go on uniformly.  The quarries are located less than half a mile from the Saint Louis and Keokuk railroad and one mile from the Mississippi river.

“Near Bowling Green, Pike county, the Niagara limestone has been quarried in a small way for the past forty years, and has been quite largely used for bridge abutments on the Chicago and Alton railroad, and occasionally for the construction of buildings.  A dwelling in Bowling Green, built about forty years ago, is of this material, and the stone still looks well and shows no signs of disintegration.  There are two quarries.  A section at one quarry shows 4 feet of soil and gravel, 4 feet of shelly limestone, and 12 feet of building stone in three layers, the upper of which is 2 feet in thickness, and the two lower each 5 feet thick.  This stratum of building stone is separated from a stratum of equal thickness below by 1 foot of shales.  This last stratum of building stone consists also of three layers, 4, 6, and 2 feet in thickness.  At the other quarry about 40 feet of rock are exposed in layers from 1 foot to 2 feet in thickness.  The stone when first quarried has a bluish-gray color and weathers to a brownish-buff color.

“Near Glencoe, Saint Louis county, the Trenton limestone has in former years been quarried for building purposes.  These are at present quite extensive quarries still in operation, but their product is all manufactured into lime.  At Cape Girardeau, Cape Girardeau county, is quarried the Lower Silurian limestone, most of the material being burned, and that which is most suitable being reserved for purposes of construction.  At present some of this stone is being shipped for repairing the state capitol of Louisiana, which was built of this stone, and was partly destroyed during the late war.  The quarry is situated about three-quarters of a mile from the wharf, on the Mississippi river, and the stone was at one time quite largely shipped to the south.  An analysis of this rock by Dr. A. Litton, for the Missouri Geological Report, gave carbonate of lime, 99.57; silica, a trace; alumina, a trace.

“The total thickness of rock exposed at the quarry is about 30 feet, the upper portion being in thinner layers and a little darker in color than the lower.  The lower portion is a beautiful white limestone, and blocks 6 feet in thickness can be obtained.

“Some of the limestones in southeast Missouri have been called marbles.  The Cape Girardeau limestone has been termed a marble by some.  In the Kansas City Review of Science and Industry the marbles of southeast Missouri are described; and it is given as the reason why these marbles have not been extensively developed, that they usually occur in beds not of sufficient thickness to furnish blocks of adequate size for the purposes for which marbles are usually employed.  It states that near the head of Cedar creek there are several outcrops of variegated red and drab marbles.  A section of rocks on a southeastern branch of cedar creek shows 10 feet of coarse magnesian limestone resting on 10 feet of light drab marble of fine grain traversed with brown veins.  Near the mouth of Cedar creek, Madison county, some of the finest exposures of the most handsome varieties of marble occur.  It is handsome when polished, and the outcrops show that it is very durable.  At the head of Tom Suck creek, in Reynolds county, are thick beds of flesh-colored marble.  Two miles north of Cape Girardeau, on the land of Dr. Thomas Holcombe, are outcrops of variegated purplish-red limestones, with occasional calcite specks in heavy layers.  Marbles of fine texture passing through various shades of flesh-color, yellow and green, pink, purple, and chocolate, all handsomely blended, are said to occur in Sainte Genevieve county.  These marbles occur in the Potsdam and Niagara formations.  The Potsdam marbles are found on Stout’s creek and Marble creek, in Iron county; Cedar creek, Marble creek, and Leatherwood creak, in Madison county; and Tom Suck creek in Reynolds county.  The Niagara marbles are found in Cape Girardeau and Saint Genevieve counties.

“Near Mooresville, Livingston county, limestone in the lower portion of the Upper Coal Measures has been quarried since 1866, but the quarries have not been regularly worked.  A section there shows 1 foot of soil, 4 feet of shelly limestone, 2 feet of clay shale, 1 foot of bituminous shales, 6 inches of clay shales, from 2 to 3 feet of blue fire-clay, and 9 feet of oolitic limestone valuable for building purposes.  The rock is rather hard, quite strong and durable, and is especially applicable for heavy masonry.  This same formation has also been quarried in hills 5 miles south of Princeton, Mercer county, near the line of the Chicago, Rock Island, and Pacific railway; also on the Wabash, Saint Louis, and Pacific railway, Clay county, about 8 miles from Kansas City.  It may also be found near the base of the bluffs at Kansas City, and at several places near Pleasant Hill, Cass county, where it is locally termed cotton rock, and is said to withstand a higher degree of heat than many other limestones.

“At Forest City, Holt county, there are several limestone beds exposed, and also a soft sandstone, but the stripping is generally so heavy that the best layers of the rock cannot be extracted with profit.  Limestone also crops out 2 miles above Forest City, and beyond this for 20 miles no building stone occurs.

“Near Amazonia, Andrew county, 14 ½ feet of evenly-bedded, ferruginous gray, and somewhat oolitic limestone occurs.  A quarry of this rock was formerly worked 2 ½ miles northeast of Savannah, and the stone was transported by wagons to Saint Joseph and used in the construction of buildings.  Similar quarries might be opened near the line between Andrew and Buchanan counties, and the same formation also crops out near Atchison, Kansas.

“Near Greenwood, Jackson county, the Missouri Pacific Railroad Company has opened a quarry, but the material is used principally for ballast, and only a small amount has been used for the construction of culverts.  Oolitic limestone of the Upper Coal Measures has also been found near Greenwood, and is used for purposes of construction on the Missouri Pacific railroad.  The stone is well adapted for rough masonry.

“Near Pleasant Hill, Cass county, there are several quarries situated on different localities which have occasionally been worked.  The stone has been used principally for the construction of railroad bridges and culverts, and for local purposes.  The formation belongs to the Upper Coal Measures, and consists of a number of limestone beds, some of which are oolitic and some shelly.  Blocks 2 feet in thickness and of any length and breadth desired may be obtained.

“At Neosho, Newton county, a whitish-gray oolitic limestone is quarried for lime.  This stone works freely, and would be well adapted for purposes of construction.  A coarse, dark gray limestone is also quarried near Neosho, some of which contains many chert concretions.

“The sub-Carboniferous limestone has been quarried for local use at Springfield, Greene county.  The quarry rock shows a face of 10 feet in depth of coarse, gray limestone.  The upper beds resemble the Keokuk limestone, and the lower beds are more of the Burlington type.  The geological divisions recognized in Iowa, Illinois, and eastern Missouri cannot strictly be sustained in southwest Missouri.

“The Second Magnesian limestone has been quarried near Marshfield, Webster county.  The exposure shows one bed 33 inches in thickness of buff limestone.  This appears to be durable stone, easy to quarry and to dress.  It is covered with but little cap-rock, but the stripping would be slightly increased as the excavations would be extended into the hill.  There are two good exposures a few hundred feet apart.

Quarries of Sandstone. - At a quarry located 1 ½ miles west of Miami station, Carroll county, there are two grades of material produced.  The poorest quality contains many plant remains, and shows dark lines of fragments of plants, along which it is often fractured by frost.  The best quality is free from these defects, and is a rather beautiful gray sandstone.  There is a vertical face of about 70 feet exposed, the lower 45 feet being without any seam of bedding, but containing occasional concretionary masses of harder sandstone.  At the top there is a depth of about 6 feet of soil and clay, and below this are 20 feet of rough and sometimes shelly sandstone layers.  The quarry rock is a rather coarse, gritty, sandstone, making an excellent building stone, and being also valuable for the manufacture of grindstones.  The concretionary masses are of no value whatever.  They have some argillaceous layers interstratified, and also contain many nice fragments of plant remains.  Although there seem to be no bedding planes in the lower 45 feet, still there are a few faint, banded, dark carbonaceous streaks occurring from 6 to 12 feet apart.  The absolute percentage of waste material embraced in the concretionary masses amounts to about one-fiftieth of the entire mass.  The concretionary portions disintegrate quite rapidly on exposure to the weather, but the other material is very durable.  This quarry has been actively worked for about fifteen years, and the rock has been shipped to various markets in Missouri, Kansas, Iowa, and Nebraska.  Eastwardly along the bluffs the rock has a more brown color, and is not so highly esteemed.

“The Warrensburg quarries are of the same geological age as the above.  At the quarry of Messrs. Bruce & Veitch the rock when quarried often shows planes of cross lamination, and this, although otherwise of good quality, is not of sufficient value for shipping purposes, but is used locally for ordinary purposes of construction.  Considerable loss results from this defect.  The planes of these laminæ are separated by carbonaceous matter.  The stone is this quarry is quite soft when first taken out, and hardens on exposure.  Various openings have been made in this vicinity which are not now worked.  From one of these 6,000 cubic yards were excavated, and from another 500 cubic yards.  Three-quarters of a mile northwest, on the land of Mr. Bunn, a coarser sandstone of the same geological age appears, about 20 feet in thickness, forming a solid bluff on the Blackwater for several hundred yards, and seems to underlie an area of about 10 acres.

“Quarries 2 miles north of Warrensburg occupy a tract of probably over 200 acres in sandstone of the Lower Coal Measures.  The total thickness of this sandstone is over 100 feet.  The quarries have not developed the entire thickness suitable for building purposes, only 45 feet in depth having been quarried.

“The sandstone hills are bounded on the north by Blackwater river, on the west by Post Oak creek, and on the east by Potts branch.  Approaching Warrensburg from the north we still find sandstone, but of an inferior quality.  In the railroad cuts and southward, and throughout the town, and for a  short distance north, the rock is generally brown and soft, and crumbles to powder on exposure.  It also sometimes alternates with shaly beds, and sometimes incloses beds of ferruginous conglomerate, and but rarely is it suitable for building purposes.

“Northwardly, as we approach the quarries, the rock is more homogeneous, the color becomes a light gray, and bluish-gray in deeper quarries.  Concretionary masses of a harder sandstone not easy to work, in fact worthless for shipping, sometimes occur.  These contain many carbonaceous stains and fragments of calamites and other plants.  A trunk measuring over 1 foot in diameter, with its bark half an inch in thickness changed to bituminous coal, was taken out.  It is supposed to belong to a coniferous tree, probably Dadoxylon acadicum of Dawson.

“North of the Blackwater good quarries have also been opened, and over thirty years ago columns for the court-house in Lexington, Missouri, were cut out.  Those columns are still entire, and are discolored only by time.

“The Normal School building at Warrensburg was the first structure of note in which this stone was used, but since then it has been largely shipped to many places, including Saint Joseph, Kansas City, and Saint Louis, Missouri; also Chicago, Illinois, and Lincoln Nebraska.

“In 1871 the quarries were opened, and in 1874 one firm shipped 900 car-loads over the Missouri Pacific railway.  A block 20 by 6 by 2 ½ feet was taken out and used in the Chamber of Commerce building at Saint Louis.  The rock weighs 140 pounds to a cubic foot when dry, but only from 145 to 150 pounds when first quarried.  It forms a large proportion of the face-stone of some Saint Louis dwellings, and it was also used in the Union Depot building at Chicago.  It stands the test of time very well.  It is not known to have scaled off, but after long exposure it becomes darker on the surface and somewhat stained.

“The Miami and Warrensburg quarries are systematically worked by means of channeling and wedging.  No powder is used except for removing the cap-rock.

“A quarry in Clinton, Henry county, furnishes stone for ordinary construction for local use.  A section of the quarry shows 3 feet of loose material, 4 feet of sandstone in layers from 1 inch to 4 inches in thickness, and below this 7 to 8 feet of sandstone in layers from 2 to 3 feet in thickness.

“The Sainte Genevieve quarry is located about 1 ½ miles from the Mississippi river, which furnishes the means of transportation.  Blocks of the largest size desired can be obtained at this quarry.  Pieces 150 feet long, 20 feet wide, and 10 feet thick are often channeled out and loosened with the wedges.

“The Insurance building at Sixth and Locust streets, Saint Louis, was chiefly built of this stone, including the figures on the top.  The stone has been much tarnished by the smoke of the city.  Among the other structures of this material are the Singer Sewing Machine building in Saint Louis, the approaches to the Saint Louis bridge, the arsenal at Rock Island, Illinois, and the state capitol of Iowa.  Everywhere the stone has proven very durable.  The quarry shows 25 feet in thickness of good uniform rock; the layers, 1 ½ to 5 feet thick, can be split readily into thin slabs if required.  It is occasionally false-bedded, and then contains fragments of plant remains, chiefly carbonized.  The thin layers are very much ripple-marked and the texture of the rock is generally homogeneous.  It is soft when first quarried and hardens on exposure.  It is a good fine grit, and a number of grindstones have been made of it.

“The geological age of the formation is the Chester group of the sub-Carboniferous.  The bluffs near by show about 25 feet of gray limestone of the Saint Louis group lying below it.”

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