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The Granites of Maine, Bulletin 313

By T. Nelson Dale


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Bibliography of Economic Geology of Granite.

Buckley, Ernest B.  Building and ornamental stones of Wisconsin:  Bull. Wisconsin Geol. and Nat. Hist. Survey, No. 4, Madison, Wis., 1898.  Granite, pp. 88-100, 107-115, 121-160; tests, pp. 46-74, 353-415.

Buckley, Ernest B., and Buehler, H. A. The quarrying industry of Missouri:  Missouri Bureau of Geol. and Mines.  2d series, vol. 2.  1904.  Granite, pp. 60-85.

Coons, Altha T. The stone industry in 1904:  Min. Res. U. S. for 1904.  1905.  Granite, pp. 17-32.

Daw, A. W. and Z. W. The Blasting of Rocks in Mines, Quarries, and Tunnels (etc.).  Pt. I:  The Principles of Rock Blasting and their General Application.  London. 1898.

Day, William C.  Stone:  Min. Res. U. S. Twenty-first and prior Ann. Repts., U. S. Geol. Survey.  Granite.

Gillette, H. P.  Rock Excavations:  Methods and Cost.  New York.  1904.

Gilmore, Q. A. Report on the comparative strength, specific gravity, and ratio of absorption of building stones in the United States.  Official report of Chief Engineers, 1875.

Guttman, Oscar.  Handbuch der Sprengarbeit.  Braunschweig.  1892.

Harris, G. F. Granite and our Granite Industries.  London.  1888.

Henning, G. C.  Diamond tools.  Trans. Am. Soc. Mech. Eng., vol. 26, 1904, pp. 409-417.

Herrmann, O.  Steinbruchindustrie und steinbruchgeologie.  Berlin.  1899.

Herrmann, O.  Technische Verwerthung der Lausitzer Granite.  Zeitschr. prak. Geol., November, 1895 (II), pp. 433-444.

Hull, Edward.  A Treatise on the Building and Ornamental Stones of Great Britain and foreign countries.  London, 1872.

Julien, Alexis A. Building stones: elements of strength in their constitution and structure: Jour. Franklin Inst. Pennsylvania, vol. 147.  No. 4.  April, 1899, pp. 257-442.

Lundbohm, Hjalmar.  Summary of his various papers on granite and granite quarrying in Europe, by William C. Day., Min. Res. U. S. for 1893.  U. S. Geol. Survey, 1894.

Mathews, Edward B.  The granite quarries of Maryland: Rept. Maryland Geol. Survey, vol. 2, 1898, pp. 136-160.

Mathews, Samuel W. The granite industry of Maine: Sixteenth Ann. Rept. Bureau of Industrial and Labor Statistics for the State of Maine, 1902, pp. 7-51.

Merrill, George P. On the collection of Maine building stones in the United States National Museum: Proc., U. S. Nat. Mus. vol. 6, 1883, pp. 165-183.

Merrill, George P. Collection of building and ornamental stones in the United States National Museum: Ann. Rept. Smithsonian Inst., 1886, pt. 2, 1889.

Merrill, George P.  Physical, chemical, and economic properties of building stones:  Rept. Maryland Geol. Survey, vol. 2, 1898, pp. 47-123.

Merrill, George P. Stones for Building and Decoration, 3d ed.  New York, 1903.

Merrill, George P.  Stone (granite): Special reports of the Census Office, Twelfth Census; mines and quarries.  (1902)  1905.

Perkins, George H.  Report on the marble, slate, and granite industries of Vermont, 1898.  Granite, pp. 51-68.

Perkins, George H. Report of State Geologist on the mineral resources of Vermont, 1899-1900.  Granite, pp. 57-77.

Perkins, George H.  Report of State Geologist on the mineral industries and geology of certain areas of Vermont, 1903-4.  1904.  Granite, pp. 23-44.

Reusch, Hans.  Granite industrien ved Idefjorden, etc.  Norges geologiske undersögelse: Aarbog for 1891.  Kristiania, 1891.

Riiber, Carl C.  Norges granit industri:  Norges geologiske undersögelse No. 12:  Aarbog for 1893, with English summary.

Rich, George.  The granite industry of New England:  New England Magazine, February, 1892, p. 742.

Rosiwal, August. Unber geometrische Gesteinsanalysen.  Ein einfacher weg zur ziffermältnisses der Mineralbestandthelle gemengter Gesteine: Verh. der K.-K. geol. Reichesanstalt, vol. 32, 1898, pp. 143-175.

Rosiwal, August.  Ueber einige neue Ergebnisse der techuischen Untersuchung von Steinbaumaterialen.  Eine neue Methode zur Erlangung zahlenmässiger Wertefur die "Frische" und den "Verwitterungs grade" der Gesteine: Verb. der K.-K. geol. Reichsanstalt.  vol. 33, 1899.  pp. 204-225.

Rosiwal, August. Ueber weitere Ergebnisse der technischen Untersuchung zur Erlangung zahlenmässiger Werte fur die "Zähigkeit" der Gesteine: Ver. K.-K. geol. Reichsanstalt, 1902, pp. 234-246.

Smith, Walter B.  Methods of quarrying, cutting, and polishing granite.  Mineral Industries: Eleventh Census, U. S. (1892), pp. 612-618.  Also Sixteenth Ann. Rept. U. S. Geol. Survey, pt. 4, pp. 446-456.

Speer, F. W.  Quarry methods:  Tenth Census, U. S., vol. 10, 1888, pp. 33 et. seq.

Tarr, Ralph S. Economic Geology of the United States, with Briefer Mention of Foreign Mineral Products, 2d ed., New York, 1895.

Watson, Thomas Leonard.  A preliminary report on a part of the granites and gneisses of Georgia: Bull. 9 A, Georgia Geol. Survey, 1902.

Watson, Thomas Leonard, and Laney, Francis B., with the collaboration of George P. Merrill.  the building and ornamental stones of North Carolina: Bull. North Carolina Geol. Survey No. 2, 1906.

Williams, Ira A.  The comparative accuracy of the methods for determining the percentages of the several components of an igneous rock: Am. Geologist, vol. 35, January, 1905.

Wolff, John E. Details regarding quarries (granite): Tenth Census, vol. 10, 1888.

  • See also the successive reports of the tests of metals and other materials for industrial purposes made at Watertown Arsenal, published by the United States War Department.
  • The German periodicals named below also give results of tests of granite:
  • Mitteilungen der technischen Versuchsanstalten zu Berlin.
  • Mitteilungen der anstalt zur Prüfung von Baumateriallen am Polytechnikum in Zürich.
  • Mitteilungen aus dem mechanisch-technischen Laboratorium der Königlichen technischen Hochschule in München.
  • The substance of the paper by Merrill in vol. 10 of the United States Tenth Census, 1888, and by Merrill in the proceedings of the U. S. National Museum, vol. 6, 1883, several times referred to, has reappeared in more modern form in his other works or is given in this report.

Glossary of Scientific and Quarry Terms.

Accessory Minerals in granite are original constituents of the rock, found only in small, often only in microscopic quantity.  (See p. 17.)

Anticline.  A term applied to granite sheets or sedimentary beds that form an arch.

Aplite.  Fine-grained granite, usually occurring in dikes and containing little mica and a high percentage of silica.

Basic.  A term applied to rocks in which the iron-magnesia minerals and feldspars with lime and soda predominate, such as diabase or basalts.

Bowlder Quarry.  One in which the joints are either so close or so irregular that no very large blocks of stone can be quarried.

Channel.  A narrow artificial incision across a mass of rock, which, in the case of a granite sheet, is made either by a series of contiguous drill holes or by blasting a series of holes arranged in zigzag order.

Cleavage, when applied to a mineral, designates a structure consequent upon the geometrical arrangement of its molecules at the time of its crystallization.

Close-jointed.  A term applied to joints that are very near together.

Crush-border.  A microscopic granular structure sometimes characterizing adjacent feldspar particles in granite in consequence of their having been crushed together during or subsequent to their crystallization.

Cut-off.  Quarrymen's term for the direction along which the granite must be channeled, because it will not split.  Same as "hard-way."

Dike.  A mass of granite, diabase, basalt, or other rock which has been erupted through a narrow fissure.

Dimension Stone.  A term applied to stones that are quarried of required dimensions.

Dip.  The inclination from the horizon, given in terms of degrees, of a sheet, joint, heading, dike, or other structural plane in a rock.

Drift.  Sand and bowlders deposited by the continental glacier.

Erosion.  The wearing away of portions of a rock by such natural agencies as stream or ice action.

Exfoliation.  The peeling of a rock surface in sheets owing to changes in temperature or other causes.

Faulting.  The slippage of a rock mass or masses along a natural fracture.  (See p. 40.)

Flow Structure.  The parallel arrangement of the minerals in granite or other igneous rock in the direction of its flowage during its intrusion.  (See p. 25.)

Geode.  A rock cavity lined with crystals.  Geodes in granite are attributed to steam or gas bubbles.  (See p. 50.)

Grain in granite is practically the direction in which the stone splits "next easiest," the "rift" being that in which it splits most readily.  (See p. 26.)

Grout.  A term applied to the waste material of all sizes obtained in quarrying stone.

Grow-on.  Quarrymen's term to designate the place where the sheet structure dies out, or the place where two sheets appear to grow onto one another.

Hard-way.  The direction at right angles to both rift and grain in which granite does not split readily.  (See Cut-off.)

Heading.  A collection of close joints.  (See p. 39, and Pls. VIII, A, IX, B.)

Heading-seam.  See Joint.

Hematite.  A oxide of iron (Fe2O3) which when scratched or powdered gives a cherry-red color.

Igneous.  A term applied to rocks that have originated in a molten condition.

Joints.  More or less steeply inclined fractures which cross the granite sheets and which are attributed to various stresses.  (See p. 38.)

Kaolin.  A hydrous silicate of alumina derived from the alteration of feldspar.

Kaolinization.  The process by which a feldspar passes into Kaolin.  (See p. 55.)

Knots.  A term applied by quarrymen to dark gray or black objects, more or less oval or circular in cross-section, which are segregations of black mica or hornblende formed in the granite while in a molten state.  (See p. 49.)  English quarrymen call them "heathen."

Knox Hole.  A circular drill hole with two opposite vertical grooves which direct the explosive power of the blast.

Lewis Hole.  An opening made by drilling two or three holes near together and chiseling out the intervening rock.

Limonite.  A hydrous oxide of iron (2Fe2O3, 3H2O); a hydrated hematite, which, when scratched or powdered, gives a brownish rust color.

Matrix.  The general mass of a rock which has isolated crystals; sometimes called groundmass.

Millimeter.  French decimal lineal measure, the thousandth part of a meter or the tenth part of a centimeter.  It is equivalent to nearly 0.04 inches, the meter being 39 10/27 inches.

Monolith.  A column or monument of one stone.

Motion.  A term used in granite regions to designate small paving-block quarries.  (See Pl. XII, B.)

Ophitic.  A term applied to microscopic rock texture to designate a mass of longish interlacing crystals, the spaces between which have been filled with minerals of later crystallization.

Pegmatite.  A very coarse granite occurring in irregular dikes or lenses in granites and some other rocks.  (See p. 44.)

Plagioclase.  A term applied to all those feldspars that are not potash feldspars.

Polarized Light.  Light whose vibrations, unlike those of ordinary light, which are in all directions, are in only one plane.  Polarized light is used in the microscopic study of rocks.

Porphyritic.  A term applied to rock texture to designate the presence of isolated crystals in a general mass (matrix or groundmass) of finer material.  (See p. 20.)

Random Stone.  A term applied by quarrymen to quarried blocks of any dimensions.  (See definition of dimension stone.)

Rift.  A quarrymen's term to designate an obscure microscopic cleavage in granite which greatly facilitates quarrying.  (See p. 26 and fig. 28.)

Salt-horse.  Quarrymen's term for aplite.

Sap.  Quarrymen's term for ferruginous discoloration along sheet or joint surfaces.

Schist.  A rock made up of flattish particles arranged in rough parallelism, some or all of which have crystallized under pressure.

Schistosity.  The quality of being like a schist.

Seam.  Quarrymen's term for joint.

Secondary Minerals.  Minerals whose presence is due to the alteration of the original minerals.

Sedimentary.  A term designating those rocks that consist of particles deposited under water.

Segregation.  The scientific term for "knot;" a collection of material separated from other material.

Sericite.  A more or less fibrous form of muscovite (potash mica), often resulting from the alteration of feldspar.

Shakes.  Quarrymen's term to designate a somewhat minute close-joint structure, which forms along the sheet surface as a result of weathering.  (See p. 40.)

Sheet Quarry.  A quarry in which the granite lies in sheets, crossed by wide-spaced steep joints.

Slickensides.  The polished and grooved faces of a joint or bed caused by motion and friction.

Specific Gravity.  The weight of a rock or mineral compared to that of a body of distilled water of the same bulk.  (See p. 21.)

Stratified.  A term applied to rock consisting of originally horizontal beds or strata.

Strike.  The direction at right angles to the inclination of a plane of bedding, a sheet, or joint, etc.

Stripping.  The material (sand, clay, soil, etc.) overlying a rock of economic value, which must be removed before quarrying.

Subjoint.  Minor joints diverging from or parallel to the regular joints.  (See p. 41.)

Syncline.  A geological term for the trough part of a wavelike sheet or bed of rock.

Till.  A mixture of clay and bowlders deposited by glaciers.

Toeing-in.  Quarrymen's term for the wedging in of the end of a granite sheet under an overhanging joint, probably in consequence of the faulting of the sheets along the joint.  It is also applied to the overlapping of lenticular sheets.

Twin Crystals.  Two adjacent crystals which have formed with the poles of their main axes in opposite or different directions.  (See p. 20.)

Weathering.  The decomposition of a rock owing to the action of the weather.  (See p. 54.)

[1] The list of individual granite quarries in Maine will not be included in this document.  At a later date the book will be presented on this web site.  If you have any questions about individual granite quarries in Maine that you would like checked in this book (published in 1907), feel free to contact me.  Peggy B. Perazzo. 

[2] The Granites of Maine, 1970, page 26, footnote a:  Tarr, R. S.,  The phenomena of rifting in granite: Am. Jour. Sci., 3rd ser., vol. 41, 1891, pp. 267-272, figs. 1-4; also Economic Geology of the United States, 1895, p. 124.  Whittle, Charles L., Rifting and grain in granite: Eng. and Min. Jour., vol. 70, 1900, p. 161, figs. 1, 2.

[3] Ibid., page 27, footnote a:  Norges granit industri, Norges Geologiske undersogelse, Aarbog for 1893, No. 12, p. 45.

[4] Ibid., page 28, footnote a:  Herrmann, O., Steinbruchindustrie und Steinbruchgeologie, Berlin, 1899, p. 109.

[5] Ibid., page 29, footnote a:  Reilly, J. W., Ordnance Rept., tests of materials, etc. (1900), 1901, p. 1119.

[6] Ibid., page 30, footnote a:  Whitney, J. D., Geology of California, vol. 1, 1865, Geology, p. 372; also pp. 227, 417, and figs. 49-54.

[7] Ibid., page 30, footnote b:  Shaker, N. S., Notes on the concentric structure of granitic rocks: Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., vol. 12, 1869, pp. 289-293.

[8] Ibid., page 30, footnote c:  Geology of New Hampshire, vol. 2, 1877, pp. 511-512 and plate opposite p. 158, showing sheet structure at the "Flume."

[9] Ibid., page 30, footnote d:  Vogt, J. H. L., Sheets of granite and syenite in their relation to the present surface: Geol. Foreningens I Stockholm, Föhandl., 1879, No. 56, vol. 4, No. 14; also Nogle, Bemaerkninger om Granit; Christiania videnskabsselsk.  Föhandl., 1881, No. 9.

[10] Ibid., page 30, footnote e:  Harris, George F., Granites and our granite industries, London, 1888.

[11] Ibid., page 30, footnote f:  Twelfth Rept. State Mineralogist of California, 1894, pp. 384-387 and 3 plates.

[12] Ibid., page 30, footnote g:  Herrmann, O., Technische Verwerthung der Lausitzer Granite: Zeitsch. für prakt. Geologie, Nov., 1895, Heft 2, p. 435.

[13] Ibid., page 31, footnote a:  Branner, John C., Decomposition of rocks in Brazil: Bull. Geol. Soc. America, vol. 7, 1896; Exfoliation, pp. 269-277; Temperature and exfoliation, pp. 285-292.

[14] Ibid., page 31, footnote b:  Merrill, George P., Rocks, Rock-weathering, and Soils, 1897, p. 245.

[15] Ibid., page 31, footnote c:  For description and representations of Stone Mountain see Purington, Chester W., Geological and topographical features of the region about Atlanta, Ga.; Am. Geologist, vol. 14, 1894, pp. 105-108 and Pl. IV; also Watson, Thomas L., Bull. Georgia Geol. Survey No. 9-A, 1902, p. 113, and Pls. I-VIII.  See also description of another granite dome-Stone Mountain, in North Carolina-by Watson and Laney, in Bull. North Carolina Geol. Survey No. 2, 1906; Pl. XXV.

[16] Ibid., page 31, footnote d:  Herrmann, O., Steinbruchindustrie und Steinberuchgeologie, 1899, pp. 109-111.

[17] Ibid., page 32, footnote a:  Turner, H. W., The Pleistocene geology of the south-central Sierra Nevada, with especial reference to the origin of the Yosemite Valley: Proc. California Acad. Sci., 3d ser., Geology, vol. 1, No. 9, 1900; Formation of domes, pp. 312-315, and Pl. XXXVII.

[18] Ibid., page 32, footnote b:  Domes and dome structure of the high Sierras: Bull. Geol. Soc. Am., vol. 15, pp. 29-36, and pl. 3, 1904.

[19] Ibid., page 32, footnote c:  Letters to writer dated May 4 and June 11, 1906.

[20] Ibid., page 33, footnote a:  The quarrying of granite in India: Nature, vol. 51, 1895, p. 272.

[21] Ibid., page 33, footnote b:  Mon. U. S. Geol. Survey, vol. 47, pp. 434-439.

[22] Ibid., page 34 footnote a:  See Bucksport topographic sheet, U. S. Geol. Survey.

[23] Ibid., page 36, footnote a:  Sorby, H. C., On the microscopic structure of crystals, indicating the origin of minerals and rocks: Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc. London, vol. 14, 1858, pp. 453 et seq.; Ward, J. Clifton, On the granitic, granitoid, and associated metamorphic rocks of the Lake district: Ibid., vol. 31, 1875, pp. 568-602.

[24] Ibid., page 36, footnote b:  Niles, W. H., Some interesting phenomena observed in quarrying:  Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., vol. 14, 1872, pp. 80-87, and vol. 16, 1874, pp. 41-43.  Emerson, B. K., Geology of Old Hampshire County, Mass.: Mon. U. S. Geol. Survey, vol. 39, 1898, pp. 63-65.

[25] Ibid., page 37, footnote a:  Watson, T. L., and Laney, F. B., The building and ornamental stones of North Carolina: Bull. North Carolina Geol. Survey No. 2, 1906, pp. 157-160.

[26] Ibid., page 38, footnote a:  Op. cit., p. 103.

[27] Ibid., page 38, footnote b:  Crosby, W. O., The origin of parallel and intersecting joints: Am. Geologist, vol. 12, 1893, pp. 368-375.

[28] Ibid., page 38, footnote c:  Becker, George F., Simultaneous joints: Proc. Washington Acad. Sci., vol. 7, July, 1905, pp. 267-275, Pl. XIII.

[29] Ibid., page 42, footnote a:  Woodworth, J. B., On the fracture system of joints, with remarks on certain great fractures: Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., vol. 27, 1896, pp. 169-173, pls. 1, 2.

[30] Ibid., page 44, footnote a:  Bull. U. S. Geol. Survey No. 148, 1897, pp. 124, 150, 206, 219.

[31] Ibid., page 45, footnote a:  The principal American writings on the subject are:  Williams, G. H., The general relation of the granitic rocks in the middle Atlantic Piedmont Plateau; Fifteenth Ann. Rpt. U. S. Geol. Survey, 1895, pp. 675-684; Crosby, W. O., and Fuller, M. L., Origin of pegmatite; Techn. Quarterly, vol. 9, 1896, pp. 326-356; Am. Geologist, vol. 19, 1897, pp. 147-180; Van Hise, C. R., A treatise on metamorphism: Mon. U. S. Geol. Survey, vol. 47, 1904, pp. 720-728.

[32] Ibid., page 48, footnote a:  Some of the dikes of that part of the coast have been described by F. Bascom: On some dikes in the vicinity of Johns Bay, Maine: Am. Geologist, vol. 23, 1897, pp. 275-280, Pls. IX, X, XI.

[33] Ibid., page 49, footnote a:  Phillips, J. A., On concretionary patches and fragments of other rocks contained in granite: Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc. London, vol. 36, 1880, pp. 1-22, Pl. I.  Merrill, G. P., On the black nodules or so-called inclusions in the Maine granite: Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 6, 1883, pp. 137-141.  Grimsley, G. P., Basic segregations: The granites of Cecil County in northeastern Maryland: Jour. Am. Soc. Nat. Hist., Apr. and July, 1894.  Daly, Reginald A., Basic segregations: The geology of Ascutney Mountain, Vermont: Bull. U. S. Geol. Survey No. 209, 1903, p. 164.

[34] Ibid., page 51, footnote a:  Determination by Mr. W. T. Schaller, of the United States Geological Survey.

[35] Ibid., page 52, footnote a:  One-fourth of a mile east of Fort Ann, in Washington County, N. Y., Professor Kemp and the writer observed open vertical joints in the pre-Cambrian noncalcareous gneiss filled with calcite, evidently derived from an extraneous source.

[36] Ibid., page 54, footnote a:  Daly, Reginald A., The geology of Ascutney Mountain, Vermont: Bull. U. S. Geol. Survey No. 209, 1903, pp. 51-53.

[37] Ibid., page 55, footnote a:  Branner, op. cit., p. 31.  (Branner, John C., Decomposition of rocks in Brazil: Bull. Geol. Soc. America, vol. 7, 1896; Exfoliation, pp. 269-277; Temperature and exfoliation, pp. 285-292.)

[38] Ibid., page 56, footnote a:  Merrill, Geo. P., Disintegration of the granitic rocks of the District of Columbia; Bull. Geol. Soc. America, vol. 6, p. 321, 1895; also A treatise on rocks, rock-weathering, and soils, New York, 1897, pp. 206-214, 245, 257.  Keyes, Charles R., The origin and relations of central Maryland granites: Fifteenth Ann. Rept. U. S. Geol. Survey, 1895, p. 725, and pls. 42-45.  See also Proc. Iowa Acad. Sci., vol. 1, pt. 3, pp. 22-24, and vol. 2, pp. 27-31, Pls. II-IV, 1895.  Watson, Thomas L., A preliminary report on a part of the granites and gneisses of Georgia, 1902, pp. 299, 300, 308, 329, 331, 333.

[39] Ibid., page 56, footnote b:  Julien, Alexis A., The durability of building stones in New York City: Tenth Census, vol. 10, 1884; Granite, pp. 370-371.  Merrill, Geo. P., Physical, chemical, and economic properties of building stones: Maryland Geol. Survey, vol. 2, 1898; Granite, pp. 92-94.  Also Merrill's Stones for Building and Decoration, 3d ed., 1903; Weathering of granite, pp. 434, 435.

[40] Ibid., page 56, footnote c:  See Julien, Alexis A., A study of the New York obelisk as a decayed bowlder: Annals New York Acad. Sci., vol. 8, 1893, pp. 93-166.

[41] Ibid., page 59, footnote a:  Merrill, Geo. P., The physical, chemical, and economic properties of building stones: Maryland Geol. Survey, vol. 2, 1898, p. 64.

[42] Ibid., page 61, footnote a:  See Geikie, after Teall, op. cit., p. 256.

[43] Ibid., page 61, footnote b:  Bascom, Florence, On some dikes in the vicinity of Johns Bay, Maine: Am. Geologist, vol. 23, 1899, pp. 275-280, Pls. IX, X, XI.  See also in this connection: Lord, E. C., Notes on the geology and petrography of Monhegan Island, Maine: Am. Geologist, vol. 26, 1900, pp. 329-347.

[44] Ibid., page 62, footnote a:  Wolff, J. E., Details regarding Maine quarries: Tenth Census, vol. 10, 1888, p. 121.

[45] Ibid., page 62, footnote b:  As to the schist and pegmatite, see Bascom, op. cit., p. 61.

[46] Ibid., page 63, footnote a:  See Bibliography, p. 184.

[47] Ibid., page 64, footnote a:  See Rosiwal, August, Ueber geometrische Gesteinsanalysen; ein einfacher web zur ziffermässigen Feststellung des quantitätsverhältnisses der Mineralbestandtheile gemengter Gesteine: Verhandl. der K.-K. geol. Reichsanstalt, vol. 32, pp. 143-175.

[48] Ibid., page 64, Footnote b:  Hawes, G. W.  (edited by Merrill), Granite; Building stones of the United States and statistics of the quarry industry: Tenth Census, vol. 10, 1888, pp. 16-18.

[49] Ibid., page 64, footnote c:  Neue Untersuchungsergebnisse über die Härte von Mineralien und Gesteinen: Verhandl.  K.-K. geol. Reichsanstalt, 1896, p. 488.

[50] Ibid., page 65, footnote a:  Igneous rocks of Arkansas: Ann. Rept. Geol. Survey Arkansas, vol. 1, 1890, p. 41.

[51] Ibid., page 65, footnote b:  See Buckley, Building and Ornamental Stones of Wisconsin, pp. 396-398.  Also Rept. of tests of metal, etc., Watertown Arsenal (1895), 1896, pp. 319-322, 339-351, 407-411.  Some of the results as to elasticity are given on page 21 of this report.

[52] Ibid., page 65, footnote c:  Buckley, op. cit., pp. 68, 69, 372-376, 400, 413.

[53] Ibid., page 66, footnote a:  Buckley, op. cit., p. 71.

[54] Ibid., page 66, footnote b:  Buckley, op. cit., pp. 64-67.

[55] Ibid., page 66, footnote c: Buckley, op. cit., pp. 73, 411.

[56] Ibid., page 66, footnote d: Buckley, op. cit., p. 70.

[57] Ibid., page 66, footnote e:  Rept. of tests of metal, etc., p. 320.

[58] Ibid., page 66, footnote f:  Steinbruchindustrie und Steinbruchgeologie, p. 10 et seq.

[59] Ibid., page 67, footnote a:  Economic geology of the United States, p. 363.

[60] Ibid., page 69, footnote a:  Bowman, Isaiah, Well-drilling methods: Water Sup. and Irr. Paper (in preparation)

[61] Ibid., page 69, footnote b:  Daw, A. W. and Z. W., The blasting of rocks in mines, quarries, and tunnels, etc., pt. 1, London, 1898.

[62] Ibid., page 69, footnote c:  Methods of quarrying, cutting, and polishing granite: Mineral Industries: Eleventh Census, 1892, pp. 612-618; also Sixteenth Ann. Rept. U. S. Geol. Survey, pt. 4 (1894-5), pp. 446-456.

[63] Ibid., page 71, footnote a:  See Mosley, Paget, On a new method of mining coal: Jour. Iron and Steel Institute, London, 1882, pp. 53-62.

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