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Solano County – List of Stone Quarries, Etc. *

(* Please note this list does not include sand or gravel quarries.)

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  • Tolenas Springs, Solano County, California - the California Onyx Quarries (AKA Tolenas Marble)

    See: “Tolenas (near) and Suisun, Solano County, California – the Tolenas Marble & Tolenas Springs (Marble) – Excerpt from the Tenth Annual Report of The State Mineralogist For The Year Ending December 1, 1890, California State Mining Bureau, pp. 670-671” - below.

  • Tolenas Springs (southeast of), Solano County, California - the Dickie Ranch Travertine Deposit (Travertine) - Excerpt from the Tenth Annual Report of The State Mineralogist For The Year Ending December 1, 1890, California State Mining Bureau, Sacramento: State Printing Office, 1890, pp. 669.

    Solano County, by W. A. Goodyear, Geologist & Assistant in the Field.

    “On the Dickie Ranch, about three miles southeast from Tolenas Springs, is another deposit of travertine. It is more variegated than the Tolenas marble, but does not quarry or dress as well, on account of its irregular fracture. Some years ago this deposit was used extensively for burning lime, but as wood became scarce the enterprise was abandoned.

    “It is to such mineral resources as these, which are frequently hidden away in the hills of agricultural counties, that the State Mining Bureau desires to draw attention. This deposit of travertine is a very pure limestone, and, lying as it does, within easy reach of river transportation, will doubtless before long be found to be of economic value.”

  • Tolenas Springs (near Tolenas & Suisun) – the Suisun Marble Quarry (Marble)Excerpts from Mineral Resources of the States and Territories West of the Rocky Mountains (pdf), by J. Ross Browne, Report to the Committee on Mines and Mining, House of Representatives During the Second Session of the Fortieth Congress, 1867-1868, Ex. Doc. No. 202, 1868.  (This book is available on Google Books.)

    The Suisun Marble Quarry, Solano County (circa 1867) (pp. 243-244)

    “The Suisun marble is found in the Peleoo Hills, a short distance north of the city of Suisun, Solano county.  It occurs in the form of irregular beds, in a peculiar sandstone formation, and is of various shades of brown and yellow, beautifully blended in bands and threads, Similar to the famous stalagmites of Gibraltar, which it resembles in origin and structure, as well as in appearance.

    “It has been formed by water, holding lime and iron in solution, percolating through the sandstone and depositing the mineral in cavities; consequently it is only found in limited quantity, though much of it, of an impure quality, is burned for making lime.”

  • Tolenas (near Tolenas & Suisun), Solano County, California - the Tolenas Marble & Tolenas Springs (Marble) - Excerpt from the Tenth Annual Report of The State Mineralogist For The Year Ending December 1, 1890, California State Mining Bureau, Sacramento: State Printing Office, 1890, pp. 668-669.

    Solano County, by W. A. Goodyear, Geologist & Assistant in the Field.

    “These springs, which have been referred to in previous reports, are situated in a terminal ridge of the Coast Range, which descends somewhat precipitously to the Suisun Valley. The Tolenas Springs has been discovered about forty years, and of late their waters have been in great demand on account of their medicinal virtues. Some time ago where the spring now used for supplying the market came out of the ground, an excavation was made to the depth of ten or twelve feet through several strata of calcareous tufa, which had been deposited by the waters of the spring. These strata were separated by layers of ‘adobe’ clay; at ten feet a white sand was passed through which rested upon a level floor of whitish clay, through which a hole two inches in diameter allowed the water to escape.

    Tolenas Marble.

    “This marble, which is quarried at the Tolenas Springs, has been locally miscalled onyx, as mentioned in a former report. It is carbonate of lime, having sufficient hardness to be classed as aragonite. Several openings from which this marble is quarried have been made on the property of the Tolenas Company. At the entrance of the principal opening, masses of irregularly stratified travertine, which are weathered to a dirty gray, rise to the height of about thirty feet, and beneath a stratum of pure wax-like aragonite is exposed. The formation is the work of springs, which were, no doubt, more active formerly than at the present time (circa 1890). Travertine is still being deposited by a spring at the summit of the calcareous accumulation, in which the principal quarry has been opened. The waters of this spring are strongly saline and its flow is accompanied by a free ebullition of gas.

    “There are several of these springs within a few yards of each other their waters varying from the nauseous saline to pure spring water to waters of some of them, especially the more saline, being charged with gas. The deposits vary from a dull gray, spongy tufa to a translucent wax-like travertine. The principal exposure of the latter occurs in a quarry now being worked; it is found in layers, varying from a few inches to a foot or more in thickness, which are covered by a few feet of surface soil and light-colored clay.

    “As the travertine is approached the clay is penetrated by numerous veins and tubes of carbonate of lime, which increase in size toward the bottom of the clay. Beneath the clay is a stratum of coarsely honey combed travertine; it is, in fact, a series of vesicles, the walls of which are composed of carbonate of lime. The inner walls of the vesicles frequently exhibit ripple-marked surfaces, and, it is said, sometimes water. Beneath the honey-combed stratum the rock is a beautiful bluish and greenish white, compact marble, which is easily dressed.”

    (pp. 670-671)

    “The ‘Tolenas Springs,’ and the so called ‘California Onyx Quarries,’ are not more than two hundred yards apart, and are situated in the hills about seven miles by road, and probably six in an air line, in a direction just about north from Suisun, and are about seven hundred feet above the sea. The water of the springs is supersaturated with carbonic acid gas, and contains some common salt, with smaller quantities of other substances. The escaping gas is collected in a large holder, and pumped into the water under pressure. Some of the water, before being charged with gas, is flavored with various extracts, such as ginger, sarsaparilla, etc., and when bottled is then sold under different names, such as ‘Ginger Ale,’ ‘Sarsaparilla and Iron,’ etc. The product is said to be about seventy-five dozen bottles daily.

    “The ‘onyx quarry’ is an isolated deposit of aragonite formed by mineral springs. On the surface it covers an area of an acre or more of ground, being between two hundred and three hundred feet in diameter. It forms a rounded knoll, which rises a number of feet above the adjacent ground. A quarry has been opened in the northern side of it, and worked so as to show a face from twenty to twenty-five feet in height. The mass of the country rock, though nowhere visible in the immediate neighborhood, is probably sandstone; but the bottom of the deposit of aragonite has not yet been reached. Much of the upper portion of it is more or less cavernous, and full of vuggs, which occasionally contain small stalactitic forms. A great deal of it, however, is laminated in extremely thin layers, which are sometimes not thicker than a sheet of pasteboard, and the laminæ being of different colors, this makes it very handsome when polished. It can also be got out here in large pieces though there is a good deal of waste. The counter in the office of the old ‘Chronicle’ building, at the corner of Bush and Kearney Streets, is said to be made of it, as well as some mantel-pieces in both the Palace and the Baldwin Hotels. The delicate laminæ are often wavy, thus adding much to its beauty. Other portions of the rock are of a somewhat translucent, milky white, which is also handsome when polished. This is the largest deposit of this beautiful, ornamental stone at present known to the writer to exist within the State.

    “One small spring yet remains at the southern edge of the deposit, discharging a very little water, which is extremely salt and supersaturated with carbonic acid, and which still continues to slowly form a little deposit of aragonite. The knoll has been a good deal shattered, and is traversed in various directions by large cracks, which have probably been produced by earthquakes at some time in the past.”

    (pp. 770)

    “A visit to the old and somewhat famous ‘Suisun Marble Quarries,’ mentioned on page 104 of the Geology of California, Vol. I, showed that they are located in a hillside some three hundred and fifty to four hundred feet above the sea, and distant some four and one half miles in an air line in a direction, north 20 degrees east magnetic from the town of Suisun.  A good deal of work was once done here.  But the quarry has long since been abandoned, and no work of any consequence has been done here for many years - the present owner thinks for nearly thirty years, i.e., since 1860.  The trouble was exactly what is stated in the report above referred to, viz.: that, though much of the stone is very beautiful, it was impossible to obtain it ‘in masses of any considerable size.’

    “The deposit is in the nature of a ‘stock-werk,’ the immediately surrounding and inclosing country rock being a breccia containing fragments of sandstone and clay shale, with occasional bits of what looks like volcanic ash rock, all cemented together chiefly by lime, and then traversed in all directions by veinules and irregular bunches of the so called ‘marble,’ which is aragonite, and much of which has the peculiar color and luster or rosin.  Some of this ‘marble’ is very delicate banded; other samples are not, and some of it is more or less crystalline in texture.”

    • Tolenas Springs (near) and Suisun, Solano County, California - Tolenas Springs Onyx/Marble Exposure (From The Structural and Industrial Materials of California, Bulletin No. 38, California, State Mining Bureau, San Francisco, California, 1906.)

      “Some onyx marble has been quarried near Tolenas and Suisun, Solano County.”

    • Tolenas Springs, Solano County, California – Tolenas Springs Quarry (Limestone, Tolenas Springs Marble, Tolenas Onyx) (from Mines and Mineral Resources of the Counties of Colusa, Glenn, Lake, Marin, Napa, Solano, Sonoma, Yolo, by Walter Wadsworth Bradley, California State Mining Bureau, California State Printing Office, 1915, pp. 137-139)

      Lime and Limestone.

      “As has been noted under ‘Cement’ the travertine deposits on the A. A. Dickey ranch, now owned by the Pacific Portland Cement Company, were at one time quarried, and the material calcined for lime.

      There are similar deposits, but smaller in extent, at Tolenas Springs (see under ‘Onyx Marble,’ also ‘Mineral Water’). The ‘hydraulic limestone’ at Benicia has been mentioned under ‘Cement.’

      Bibl.: R. VIII, p. 631; X, pp. 669, 670; XII, p. 632 ; Bull. 38, p. 61.

      MARBLE (see Onyx Marble).

      Mineral Water.

      Tolenas Springs. Donald Lamont et al., San Francisco, owners; H. W. Conkle, Box 63, Suisun, lessee. The springs are at the head of Soda Springs Creek, 5 1/2 miles north of Fairfield, at an elevation of 800 feet (U.S.G.S.). The following temperatures were noted: Tolenas 66° F.; spring at aragonite deposit on road below house, 76° F.  There was much gas escaping from this latter spring, and it was surrounded by a considerable deposit of calcareous sinter.  Water from the former is bottled for sale.  It has a noticeable salty taste from the sodium chloride it carries – 216 grains per gallon.  The escaping gas (CO2) is caught in a gasometer and pumped into the water in bottling.  There are no accommodations for guests.  There is also a white sulphur spring about 1 mile below.  Some years ago this ’onyx marble’ or aragonite, was quarried and sold as ‘Tolenas onyx’ but there was too small a body of it.  Some beautifully banded pieces could be obtained, but not in sufficient size.  There are several of these deposits around the springs and in the near-by hills.

      “Bibl.: R. VI, Pt. I, p. 74, X, pp. 668, 670; XII, p. 346; XIIL p. 521; Bull. 24, p. 138 ; U. S. G. S., Bull. 32, p. 209; Water Sup. Pap. 338, pp. 162-163; Mineral Springs and Health Resorts OP Cal. W. Anderson, p. 255.”

      Onyx Marble.

      “Under the name of ‘Suisun marble’ some stone was at one time quarried from the travertine deposits on the Dickey ranch, now owned by the Pacific Portland Cement Company, near Suisun. Some pieces showing a beautifully banded and wavy structure were obtained, but for the most part stone of only small dimension could be cut out. The same thing is true of the deposits at the Tolenas Springs, 4 miles west of these. Aragonite has also been found at Vacaville.

      “Bibl.: R. I, p. 17; IV, p. 73; V, p. 67; VI, Pt. I, pp. 22, 91; VIII, p. 631; X, pp. 668-670; XII, p. 403; XIII, pp. 632, 641; Bull. 37, p. 112; Bull. 38, p. 114; Geol. Surv. op Cal., Geol. Vol. 1, p. 104 ; U. S. G. S., Water Sup. Pap. 338, p. 162.”

    • Tolenas Springs, Solano County, California – Tolenas Springs Quarry  (from Appendix to the Journals of the Senate and Assembly...of the Legislature of the State of California..., Vol. 7, Part 1, California, Appendix to the Journals of the Senate, California. Legislature. Assembly, California. Legislature. Senate, Superintendent of State Printing, 1917, pp. 309-311.  (This book is available on Google Books.)

      Lime and Limestone.

      “As has been noted under ‘Cement’ the travertine deposits on the A. A. Dickey ranch, now owned by the Pacific Portland Cement Company, were at one time quarried, and the material calcined for lime.  There are similar deposits, but smaller in extent, at Tolenas Springs (see under ‘Onyx Marble,’ also ‘Mineral Water’).  The ‘hydraulic limestone’ at Benicia has been mentioned under ‘Cement.’

      “Bibl.:  R. VIII, p. 631; X, pp. 669, 670; XII, p. 632; Bull. 38, p. 61.”

      Mineral Water.

      “Tolenas Springs.  Donald Lamont et al., San Francisco, owners; H. W. Conkle, box 63 Suisun, lessee.  The springs are at the head of Soda Springs Creek 5 ½ miles north of Fairfield, at an elevation of 800 feet (U.S.G.S.).  The following temperatures were noted:  Tolenas 66º F.; spring at aragonite deposit on road below house, 76º F.  There was much gas escaping from this latter spring, and it was surrounded by a considerable deposit of calcareous sinter.  Water from the former is bottled for sale.  It has a noticeable salty taste from the sodium chloride it carries – 216 grains per gallon.  The escaping gas (CO2) is caught in a gasometer and pumped into the water in bottling.  There are no accommodations for guests.  There is also a white sulphur spring about ¼ mile below.  Some years ago this ‘onyx marble,’ or aragonite, was quarried and sold as ‘Tolenas onyx,’ but there was too small a body of it.  Some beautifully banded pieces could be obtained, but not in sufficient size.  There are several of these deposits around the springs and in the near-by hills.

      “Bibl.:  R. VI, Pt. I, p. 74, X, pp. 558, 670; XII, p. 346; XIII, p. 521; Bull. 24, p. 138; U.S.G.S., Bull. 32, p. 209; Water Sup. Pap. 338, pp. 162-163; ‘Mineral Springs and Health Resorts of Cal.’ W. Anderson, p. 255.”

      Onyx Marble.

      “Under the name of ‘Suisun marble’ some stone was at one time quarried from the travertine deposits on the Dickey ranch, now owned by the Pacific Portland Cement Company, near Suisun.  Some pieces showing a beautifully banded and wavy structure were obtained, but for the most part stone of only small dimension could be cut out.  The same thing is true of the deposits at Tolenas Springs, 4 miles west of these.  Aragonite has also been found at Vacaville.

      “Bibl.: R. I, p. 17; IV, p. 73; V, p. 67; VI, Pt. I, pp. 22, 91; VIII, p. 631; X, pp. 668-670; XII, p. 403; XIII, pp. 632, 641; Bull. 37, p. 112; Bull. 38, p. 114; Geol. Surv. of Cal., Geol. Vol. 1, p. 104; U.S.G.S., Water Sup. Pap. 338, p. 162.”

    • Tolenas Springs, Solano County, California – Tolenas Springs Onyx Marble (Excerpts from “Limestone in California,” by Clarence A. Logan, California Journal of Mines and Geology, Vol. 43, No. 3, July 1947, California Division of Mines, San Francisco, California, pp. 175-357. Used with permission, California Department of Conservation, California Geological Survey.)

      “At Tolenas Springs, 6 miles north of Fairfield, spring deposits of calcium carbonate were worked on a small scale prior to 1926. The deposits have been known since early days, having been mentioned by Whitney (65), (a) Irelan (88), (b) Watts (90), (c) Crawford (96) ), (d); Laizure (27 ), (e); and G. A. Waring (15 ), (f). This stone is generally light colored and translucent, but some of it resembles resin before polishing, and shows close banding. While it takes a high polish and yields an attractive product, it has been found in only comparatively small pieces, and is rather cavernous so that it could be used only for small objects.”

      (a) Josiah Dwight Whitney, Geological Survey of California, Geology, vol. 1; Report of Progress and Synopsis of the Field Work from 1860 to 1864, xxvii, 498 pp., 1865.)

      (b) William Irelan, Jr., Eighth Annual Report of the State Mineralogist for the Year Ending October 1, 1888, California Mining Bureau Report 8, 948 pp. illus., 1888.)

      (c) W. L. Watts, “Solano County,” California Mining Bureau Report 10, pp. 659-669, 1890.)

      (d) J. J. Crawford, Thirteenth Report (Third Biennial) of the State Mineralogist for the Two Years Ending September 15, 1896, California Mining Bureau Report 13, 726 pp., 1896.)

      (e) C. McK Laizure, San Francisco Field Division, “Solano County,” California Mining Bureau Report 23, pp. 203-213, 1927.)

      (f) Gerald Ashley Waring, Springs of California, U. S. Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper 338, 410 pp., maps, 1915.)

  • Tolenas Springs and Quarry north of Suisun City, Solano County, California

    (The 1966 edition of Historic Spots in California contains a description of Tolenas Springs under the city of Suisun. Tolenas Springs is not in the 1990 edition of this same book.) Tolenas Springs was said to be located in the hills about five miles north of Suisun, about 1 miles west of the freeway. In 1966 Tolenas Springs was found to be on gated, private land. Water from the springs had been bottled in the past and was popular until about 1905. The area was called "Land of Healing Waters" by the local Indians in the past. In the 1880s onyx was quarried for use. In a 1966 article it was noted that the onyx ledge was "a quarry for crushed white rock used on dwelling roofs and in garden patios. There are two very interesting and informative articles in the online Echoes of Solano's Past column written by Kristin Delaplane in The Reporter.com in which the history of Tolenas Springs and Quarries history is fully covered. (Please see the links below.)

    At present time the exact location is not known, although it most certainly is on private land. If you have specific knowledge about the location of this quarry, I would like you to contact me. The Geologic Guidebook of the San Francisco Bay Counties: History, Landscape, Geology, Fossils, Minerals, Industry, and Routes to Travel, Bulletin 154, (a) notes:

    "About 4 miles north of Fairfield and 1 miles west of Highway 40 is the Tolenas Springs region, reached by trail up Soda Springs Creek. Extensive deposits of calcite and aragonite have been precipitated as banded travertine from the spring water...The travertine or onyx marble is mostly light colored, but brown banding in some of it produces attractive stone for cutting...."

    (a) The Geologic Guidebook of the San Francisco Bay Counties: History, Landscape, Geology, Fossils, Minerals, Industry, and Routes to Travel, Bulletin 154, pg. 314.

    • Tolenas Springs, Solano County, California – Tolenas Springs Quarry operated by the Tolenas Quarry Company through 1969 (Golden Travertino (travertine) and California Onyx) (from Limestone, Dolomite, and Shell Resources of The Coast Ranges Province, California, Bulletin 197, by Earl W. Hart, California Division of Mines and Geology, 1978.  (This book is available on the Internet Archive – Texts.)

      (pp. 13)  North Bay District (B-2)

      “This district includes all of the deposits in Marin and Solano Counties and one deposit in southern Napa County (plate IB).  Not only have these deposits contributed substantially to the early economy of the San Francisco Bay area, they have also contributed richly to its history. Possibly the first limestone deposit worked commercially in the Coast Ranges of California is the tiny Olema deposit, operated about 1850-1852.  The Inverness Park and Cement Hill deposits also were very early sources of lime rock.  About 1860, California’s first hydraulic cement plant was established at Benicia.  It used shells or impure limestone from local deposits until it was shut down around 1890.  One of the earliest Portland cement plants in California was established at the Cement Hill deposit in 1902.  Here, travertine was quarried as the principal raw material. The next year, impure shelly limestone was developed as a source of cement rock at the Napa Junction deposits. Some of these deposits, along with the Tolenas Springs deposit, also yielded limestone for terrazzo, decorative stone, and flux.

      Only the Tolenas Springs deposit is now active. It presently is operated on a small scale, yielding travertine and onyx marble for terrazzo.”

      (pp. 17)

      “Tolenas Springs (California Onyx Marble) deposits. Location: W 1/2 sec. 2 (proj.), T. 5 N., R. 2 W., M.D., 4 miles north of Fairfield; Mount Vaca 15-minute quadrangle. Ownership: Woods Estate Ranch (1962); operated by Tolenas Quarry Company, 537 Cottonwood Drive, Fairfield (1969).

      “Travertine and calcareous onyx have been known at Tolenas Springs at least since 1878, when specimens were displayed at the Paris Exhibition. Exactly when the deposits were first worked commercially is not known, but it may have been about the same time (Hanks, 1884, p. 72; Goodyear, 1890, p. 670). The deposits have been worked intermittently on a small scale as a source of ornamental stone and terrazzo materials.  The early operators are not known; but the later developers include S. Miletin (1926 and earlier?), P. Grassi and Company and L. Cardini (1928-1936), and Ray McRoberts and Paul Lahmon of Tolenas Quarry Company (since about 1960).  Total production is believed to be several thousand tons.

      “Several small deposits of travertine and onyx lie in the vicinity of Tolenas Springs in NW 1/2 sec. 2 (proj.).  These rest on sandstone – apparently of the Chico Formation.  The main deposit is situated at the east end of the group on the south bank of Soda Springs Creek.  It covers an area about 400-by-200 feet and may have been 25 feet thick or thicker at one time (Goodyear, 1890, p. 671).  The travertine is typically fine grained, tan or brownish, thinly banded, and somewhat porous.  The calcareous onyx is microcrystalline to finely fibrous, milky white to pale amber, translucent, semiresinous to waxy, delicately banded, and dense but commonly cavernous (vuggy).  The onyx occurs as lenses and irregular fracture fillings in the travertine.  Both materials are somewhat fractured and are obtained in small pieces.  Similar, but smaller, spring deposits can be traced to the southwest for a quarter of a mile.  Another deposit 200 yards to the northwest of the main deposit is shown by Weaver (1949, plate 5), but nothing is known of this.

      “Development has been sporadic and limited principally to the main deposit.  Recent (1962) workings consist of a quarry face 15 feet high and 100 to 150 feet long.  By April 1967, small amounts of onyx or travertine had also been produced from pits a quarter of a mile southwest of the main quarry (Oliver E. Bowen, personal communication, 1967).  To the west and southwest are two small old quarries, one of which is about 30-by-30 feet with a 10-foot face.  In 1962, the carbonate material was selectively mined, crushed, screened, and sold as terrazzo under the names ‘Golden Travertino’ (travertine) and ‘California Onyx’.  Reserves of the two materials are not known although the travertine appears to be more abundant than the onyx.

      “Other references: Watts, 1890, p. 668; Waring, 1915, p. 162-163, 165; Laizure, 1927, p. 210; Logon, 1947, p. 332.”

  • Tolenas Springs, Solano County, California – Tolenas Springs Onyx/“Marble”/Travertine Quarry & Mineral Springs (Onyx/”Marble” & Travertine)  (The photographs below and in the “Tolenas Springs Quarry and Mineral Springs” photo tour section of our web site were taken and contributed by Richard Degraffenreid.)
    Tolenas Springs onyx/“marble”/travertine quarry & mineral springs area, near Fairfield, Solano County, CA Close-up of rock at the Tolenas Springs onyx/“marble”/travertine quarry & mineral springs area, near Fairfield, Solano County, CA Close-up of rock at the Tolenas Springs onyx/“marble”/travertine quarry & mineral springs area, near Fairfield, Solano County, CA

    Tolenas Springs onyx/“marble”/travertine quarry & mineral springs area

    Close-up of a rock at the Tolenas Springs onyx/“marble”/travertine quarry area

    Another rock at the Tolenas Springs quarry area

  • Tolenas Springs, Solano County, California – “Mystery of the healing waters in Tolenas” (& the Tolenas Springs Marble Quarry near Tolenas Springs),  by Nancy Dingler, Friday, August 18, 2000, Historical Articles of Solano County Online Database.
  • Tolenas Springs, Solano County, California - Tolenas Spring and Quarry from Echoes of Solano's Past, by Kristin Delaplane.
    • Marble, Healing Water Spring from Tolenas Site (September 5, 1999).  This article describes the area around Tolenas Springs and quarry, the location and history of the springs and quarry.
    • May air of 1883 filled with picnics, rain (March 23, 1997) "...And yet another was the Solano Pioneers or 49ers Picnic at Tolenas Springs where only 300 people showed. The onyx quarry discovered in 1855 was still in operate at that location. That summer it would be reported that two carloads of the stone were shipped to market."
  • Tolenas Springs, Solano County, California – Solano County Communities Busy in 1884 (November 23, 1997) "Tolenas Springs news: The directors of a new corporation, the Tolenas Mineral Water and Onyx Co., were talking of building a steam works at the springs. This steam works would be set up to saw out the slabs of onyx at that location for shipment to New York, Boston and Cincinnati."

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