Logo Picture Left SideLogo Picture Right SideLogo Text at Center
Home > Search > Site Map > California > CA - Quarry Links & Photographs > Napa County > List of Stone Quarries

Napa County - List of Stone Quarries, Etc.*

(* Please note this list does not include sand or gravel quarries.)

Use the following drop down menu to go to

  • Napa Junction (near) (today known as American Canyon), Napa County, California – the Standard Portland Cement Co./Corp. & the Basalt Rock Company – Cement Plant & Limestone and Clay Quarries
    • Standard Portland Cement Company,” by Rebecca Yerger, was originally published Sunday, June 6, 1999, in the Napa Valley Register.  You can read excerpts from this article below, or you can use the preceding link to read the full transcription of the article. (This article is used with the permission of the author, Rebecca Yerger, and the Napa Valley Register.) 

      “Standard Portland Cement Company was once a major industrial and economic force in Napa County.  And, its Napa Junction location has been the site of manufacturing and commerce since the turn of the century.

      “Beginning in 1900, the Napa Daily Journal regularly printed detailed reports of the quarry operation at the Napa Junction property.  On June 8, 1900, the newspaper noted, ‘the product from our new lime quarry will be shipped by rail to Oakland for treatment.’  The volume of limestone extracted from the Napa Junction land quickly warranted direct access to the Southern Pacific Railroad shipping lines....”

      “The limestone quarry operation continued under the direction of its owner, local attorney Augustus Watson, until 1902.  That year, he sold the Napa Junction property to an intermediary for the Standard Portland Cement Company....” 

      “Once in full operation, February 1903, the Standard Portland Cement Company employed 150 local men....”

      “The Standard Portland Cement Company continued its Napa Junction operation until about 1935 when the on-site supply of limestone and clay ran out...Between 1940 and 1950...the land was owned intermittently by the Santa Cruz Portland Cement Company, a sister plant to the original Napa Junction company...Then in 1946, also according to the memories of Napa County residents, Basalt made arrangements with Santa Cruz to begin production at the Napa Junction site.  And in 1950, Basalt purchased the property.

      “Basalt produced a light weight aggregate, a ball-shaped material which floated like pumice...(and) a siliceous based cement additive tradenamed Pozzelan at the Napa Junction plant...The Basalt plant operated between 1946 and 1978.  Then the former Cement Works was abandoned and forgotten until 1984.  That year, the current owner, Jaeger Vineyards, purchased the property hoping to convert the land into vineyards....”

      “Presently, the former Cement Works is being considered as a site for the City of American Canyon’s town center.  After more than 75 years as an industrial center which produced materials to build cities, the former Cement Works could become the center of a new city.”

    • Cast in cement: American Canyon’s industrial past,” by Linda Luippold, Eagle Staff Writer, American Canyon Eagle, April 25, 2005.

      According to this article, in 1902 Augustus Watson, the owner of the property, sold land to  “an intermediary for the Standard Portland Cement Company.”  The author goes on to describe the cement plant, the worker’s boarding houses, etc.  Limestone and clay were quarried on the property until sometime before 1920.  Rebecca Yerger, a Napa County historian, wrote, “According to the parcel’s chain of title, the land was owned intermittently by the Santa Cruz Portland Cement Company, a sister plant of the original company.”

      The Basalt Rock Company operated the plant during the late 1940s to the early 1950s.  The company added new buildings to the existing Standard Portland Cement Company buildings in 1946.  The Basalt Rock Company operated the plant until 1978 when the plant was closed.

      The writer wrote that “Water was pumped in from Miller’s Pond, the largest of several quarries dug into the landscape.  Extensive tunnels that channeled the water under the plant also remain today, although partially collapsed.” Later in the article she states that there were six quarries on the site.

    • Dreaming up a viable future for cement plant,” by Linda Luippold, Eagle Staff Writer, American Canyon Eagle, May 3, 2005.
    • Napa Junction (near), Napa County, California – the Standard Portland Cement Company & Augustus Watson, in “City of American Canyon,” in Local Agency Formation Commission of Napa County Comprehensive Water Service Study Municipal Service Review – Final Report, October 2004, pp. 118.

      “At the end of the 19th Century, the emergence of agriculture and cattle grazing at the southern end of Napa County led to the development of a small rural community, known originally as “Napa Junction.”  The community’s original name reflected its relationship with the railroad system...Over time, the community’s name was changed to American Canyon.  Augustus Watson’s discovery in the early 1900s of clay and limestone underlaying portions of American Canyon led to the community’s first industrial enterprise, the Standard Portland Cement Company.”

    • Napa (near), California – the Standard Portland Cement Company – the then new Cement Plant (The following information is from the section “Limes and Cements” in Stone:  An Illustrated Magazine Devoted to Stone, Marble, Granite, Slate, Cement, Contracting and Building, Vol. XXIV, No. 1, January, 1902, Stone Publishing Co., New York, pp. 78.)

      The Standard Portland Cement Co. has been incorporated in San Francisco, with a capital stock of $2,000,000, to erect a cement plant near Napa.  Incorporators are:  William J. Dingee, F. W. and W. G. Henshaw, E. J. McCutcheon, and Frank C. Havens.

    • Napa Junction (near), Napa County, California – William J. Dingee, “Cement King” owner of the Standard Portland Cement Company – “The ‘Cement King, made Sequoia High’s Beautiful Gardens,” by Joan Levy, in The Spectrum:  Redwood City’s Monthly Magazine, May 2007, pp. 9

      According to this article, William Jackson Dingee was a California millionaire who was known as the ‘Cement King’ because “he owned the Standard Portland Cement Company and had plants in Napa, Washington state, Pennsylvania and finally in Santa Cruz.”  The gardens of his estate, Dingee Park, is a part of the present-day Sequoia High School campus in Redwood City.  Dingee’s house was destroyed in the 1906 earthquake.

      • William Jackson Dingee – the following portrait of William J. Dingee is from Men of the Pacific Coast: Containing portraits and biographies of the professional, financial and business men of California, Oregon and Washington. 1902-1903, Pacific Art Co., San Francisco, Cal., 1903, pp. 384.
        William J. Dingee, Real Estate.  Address, San Francisco or Oakland.” Portrait of William J. Dingee, San Francisco and Oakand, CA, circa 1902-1903
      • William Jackson Dingee – Biography on the “Find A Grave” web site.
    • Napa Junction (near), Napa County, California – the Standard Portland Cement Company  (Excerpt from Water & Sewage Works, Vol. 22, Scranton Pub. Co., 1902, pp. 338.  This book is available on Google Books.)

      “The Standard Portland Cement Company, Napa, Cal., has filed articles of incorporation.  The company recently purchased the Watson lime and cement property near Napa Junction.  The directors of the company are W. J. Dingee, and E. J. McCutcheon of San Francisco; T. W. Henshaw, W. G. Henshaw and Frank Havens of Oakland.”

    • Napa Junction (near), Napa County, California – the Standard Portland Cement Company  (Excerpt from The Electrical World and Engineer, Vol. 39, McGraw Pub. Co., 1902, pp. 529.  This publication is available on Google Books.)

      “Large Induction Motors – The Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Company recently closed a contract through its San Francisco agency for two 800-hp. induction motors.  They will be installed in the new works which the Standard Portland Cement Company is building at Napa Junction, Calif.  A motor of the same size and type was used in operating the moveable sidewalk at the Paris Exposition.  There are no motors at present on the Pacfic Coast that approach these in large capacity.”

    • Napa Junction (near), Napa County, California – the Standard Portland Cement Company (Limestone) (Excerpt from United States Congressional serial set, Issue 4720, United States Congressional Serial Set, 1904, pp. 295.  This book is available on Google Book.)

      Present sources of cement supply:

      “Standard Portland Cement Company is located at Napa Junction, Cal.  Ten rotary kilns are in operation, giving a nominal capacity of 2,000 barrels per day.  The materials used are an argillaceous limestone and a pure limestone.  Brand, ‘Standard.’  J. F. Bachmann, manager; L. T. Bachmann, chemist.”

    • Napa Junction (near), Napa County, California – the Standard Portland Cement Company Plant, Kilns & Operations (Limestone) (From The Structural and Industrial Materials of California, Bulletin No. 38, California, State Mining Bureau, San Francisco, California, 1906.)

      Standard Portland Cement Company. The works of this company are at Napa Junction, Napa County; office, Crocker Building, San Francisco. The company began operations in February, 1903, with eight rotary kilns, which were soon increased to ten, each having a capacity of 200 barrels per day, or a total capacity of 2000 barrels of cement per day.

      “The plant is close to the Southern Pacific Railroad, at the junction of the roads to Vallejo and Benicia. Two spurs from the railway extend into the works, and a tramway runs to deep water on Napa Creek, about a mile distant, so that cement may be shipped either by rail or by water.

      “The cement is manufactured in large fireproof buildings. The building for holding the stock is over 200 feet long and has a capacity of 200,000 barrels. The cement is usually shipped in sacks of 95 pounds each; when so desired, it is shipped in barrels. The company has its own cooper shop.

      “The works are well equipped with modern machinery. The company has its own machine shop. Electrical power is used throughout the plant, and the material is all handled by machinery from the time it is put on the car in the quarry until it is placed in sacks for shipment. The only manual labor required is in quarrying and loading the raw materials, and in loading the cement on the cars.

      Works of the Standard Portland Cement Company at Napa Junction. (Ill. No. 79) Works of the Standard Portland Cement Company
      Limestone Quarry of Standard Portland Cement Company at Napa Junction. (Ill. No. 80) Limestone Quarry of Standard Portland Cement Company
      Analysis of Portland Cement at Napa Junction

      “The raw materials, both the limestone and the clay, are quarried close by the mill and loaded on small dump-cars, which are pulled into the works by a wire cable. Each car is weighed as it comes in, and the materials are properly proportioned, so that the limestone and clay when dropped into the rock-crusher are in the right proportion for cement. From the crusher the material passes to two large rotary dry kilns heated by oil flame. From the dry kilns part of the product goes to storage bins, where a supply is kept to meet demands. The other portion from the dry kilns passes to the ball and tube mills; there are six of each for grinding the raw materials, and the same number for grinding the clinker. The fine material is then conveyed to ten large rotary kilns, where it is burned with oil fuel to a clinker, which as it comes from the kilns is caught in iron buckets on a vertical belt and carried to the top of the cooling chamber, where it is cooled by air-currents. The cooled clinker is next passed to the ball and tube mills, where it is thoroughly pulverized ready for use, and then taken by an overhead tube to the stock room, and stored in large bins awaiting shipment.”

      “The raw materials consist of crystalline limestone and a calcareous clay, both of which are obtained from the same pit. The limestone occurs in regular beds from 1 to 4 feet thick, which dip to the north at an angle of 40 degrees. It is partly crystallized and very fossiliferous, being composed largely of a mass of broken shells, not many of which are preserved entire. It is probably of Lower Cretaceous age.

      “The limestone is overlaid by a yellow calcareous clay. The quarry face shows a thickness of about 100 feet of limestone and 50 feet of clay. Drill records, it is reported, indicate a thickness of at least 200 feet of limestone at the quarry. Steam drills and dynamite are used in quarrying the limestone, and a steam shovel for loading the clay is soon to be added.

      “A fault-plane runs through the quarry and shows quite prominently on the south wall, where a crumpled, blue-black pyritiferous shale has been thrust up over the limestone.

      “The clay at the east end of the quarry is very calcareous, and merges into limestone, but at the extreme west end it is more argillaceous. Overlying all is a bed of dark brown adobe....”

    • Napa Junction (near), Napa County, California – the Standard Portland Cement Company  (Excerpt from Cement and Engineering News, Chicago, January 1906, pp. 2. This book is available on Google Books.)

      Election of Officers.

      “The Standard Portland Cement Company, works at Napa Junction, Cal., offices Crocker building, San Francisco, Cal.  The following officers were chosen at the annual election Jan. 18, 1906:  Irving A. Bochman, president; William F. Dingee, vice president; Frank A. Losh, secretary.

      “Provision for doubling the present capacity of the Napa Junction plant was made.”

    • Napa Junction (near), Napa County, California – the Standard Portland Cement Company  (Excerpt from Directory of American Cement Industries, Charles Carroll Brown, Municipal Engineering Co., 1906, pp. 85.  (This book is available on Google Books.)

      American Cement Manufacturers

      “Standard Portland Cement Company, 30-34 Crocker Bldg. A1b, “San Francisco Cal.  Works at Napa Junction, Cal.

      “Irving A. Bachman, Pres., Mgr. and Dir., Napa Junction, Cal.; Wm. J. Dingee, Vice-Pres. and Dir., San Francisco, Cal.; Frank A. Losh, Sec’y and Dir., San Francisco, Cal.; F. H. Henshaw, Dir., San Francisco, Cal.; A. F. Morrison, Dir., San Francisco, Cal.

      “Western Fuel Co., Sales Agents, 318 California St., San Francisco, Cal.

      “Capitalization, $2,000,000.  Capacity, 2,500 barrels a day.  Process, dry, rotary kilns, oil fuel.  Storage capacity, 200,000 barrels.  Brand, Standard Portland cement.

      “On Southern Pacific Railroad and San Francisco Bay.”

    • Napa Junction (near), Napa County, California – the Standard Portland Cement Company  (Excerpt from Engineering and Mining Journal, Vol. 82, Western and Company, 1906, pp. 126.  This book is available on Google Books.)

      Industrial.

      “The Allis-Chalmers Company has received from Dr. Irving A. Bachman, acting for the Santa Cruz Portland Cement Company, and for the Atlantic Portland Cement Company, the largest single order for cement machinery equipment ever placed by one man at one time.  Allis-Chalmers machinery, which was furnished in 1902 to the Standard Portland Cement Company at Napa Junction, Cal. and which consisted of crushers, ball mills and tube mills, has been in continuous operation since then.  Dr. Bachman, in October, 1905, placed the initial order for the Santa Cruz Portland Cement Company’s equipment....”

    • Napa Junction (near), Napa County, California – the Standard Portland Cement Company  (Excerpts from “Report on Production of Cement,” by E. C. Eckel, U.S. Department of the Interior,  in Cement World, Vol. 2, Cement World Co., 1908.  (This magazine is available on Google Books.)

      (pp. 206)  “...Present status of the Portland cement industry in the United States and location of plants: 

      “Dingee group:  Standard Portland Cement Company, Napa Junction, Cal.; Santa Cruz Portland Cement Company, Santa Cruz, Cal.; Northwestern Portland Cement Company, Kendall, Wash.; Atlantic Portland Cement Company, Stockertown, Pa.; Northampton Portland Cement Company, Stockertown, Pa.”

      (pp. 409) “Engineering Work – California’s Immense Cement Plant” 

      “The largest cement plant on the Pacific coast, or, for that matter, west of the Missouri, is located at Davenport, in Santa Cruz County, California....”

      “It may be added that the Santa Cruz Portland Cement Company owns a large interest in the Standard Portland Cement Company, which has a large cement plant located at Napa Junction, in Solano* county, Cal.  This latter factory has a daily capacity of 5,000 barrels.”(* This should be Napa County rather than Solano County.)

    • Napa Junction (near), Napa County, California – the Standard Portland Cement Company  (Excerpt from Industrial Progress, Vol. 1, E. J. Meisenheimer, 1909, pp. 411.  (This publication is available on Google Books.)

      Up-to-Date Character of Installations on the Pacific Coast

      “Every successful cement company on the Pacific Coast today, including Henry Cowell Lime & Cement Co.’s plant at Concord, Cal.; Standard Portland Cement Company, Napa Junc., Cal.; Santa Cruz Portland Cement Company, Davenport, Cal.; California Portland Cement Company, Colton, Cal., and Golden State Portland Cement Company, Ore Grande, Cal.; was equipped to a greater or lesser extent by Allis-Chalmers Company, and the best cement manufactured on the coast is made in that company’s machines.”

    • Napa Junction (near), Napa County, California – the Standard Portland Cement Corporation (Advertisement)  The following advertisement is from Our Navy:  The Standard Publication of the U.S. Navy, Vol. 3, January 1909, U. S. Naval Training Station, San Francisco, California, pp. 36.
      Standard Portland Cement Corporation Advertisement January 1909

      Standard Portland Cement Corporation & Santa Cruz Portland Cement Advertisement January 1909

      Cement  –  Cement  –  Cement
      Architects and Contractors
      For the Period January 1, to August 31, 1909, We Manufactured and Sold Over
      1,000,000 Barrels of Cement.
      Our cement is superior in quality to any other cement
      manufactured in the world.

      Santa Cruz Portland Cement Co. Standard Portland Cement Corporation
      Works at Davenport, Cal. –          General sales office    – Works at Napa Junction, Cal.
      Capacity, 8,000 bbls. Daily.       221 Crocker Bldg., S.F.    Capacity, 2,500 bbls. daily

    • Napa Junction (near), Napa County, California – the Standard Portland Cement Company Plant & Quarries (Limestone)  (Excerpt from The Overland Monthly, Vol. 54, Samuel Carson, Publisher, 1909, pp. 627.  This publication is available on Google Books.)

      “The mineral resources of Napa County are one of its great sources of wealth....”

      “Near Napa Junction is a deposit of limestone and clay, from which is manufactured Portland cement of the highest quality.  The Standard Portland Cement Company has expended several hundred thousand dollars in equipping a mill at this point, and is now turning out an average of 2,200 barrels of cement a day.  Two hundred and fifty men are employed at this mill....”

    • Napa Junction (near), Napa County, California – the Standard Portland Cement Company  (Excerpt from Annual Report of the Reclamation Service, Vol. 8, United States Reclamation Service, 1910, pp. 17.  (This book is available on Google Books.)

      Cement Tests

      “The amount of cement for which tests were made during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1909, was 196,097 barrels, of which 163,733 barrels were accepted and 32,364 barrels were rejected.  Of this amount 161,075 barrels were tested at the main laboratory (located at Chicago, Ill., until end of March, 1909, and since then at Denver, Colo.), and 35,022 barrels at the laboratory at Berkeley, Cal.  The companies manufacturing this cement, and the projects for which it was furnished, are as follows:  ...Standard Portland Cement Company, Napa Junction, Cal. (Standard Brand), for Klamath, Orland, Payette-Boise, Umatilla, and Yakima projects....”

    • Napa Junction (near), Napa County, California – the Standard Portland Cement Corporation  (Excerpt from Walkers Manual of Western Corporations, Vol. 1910, 1910, pp. 180.  This book is available on Google Books.)

      Standard Portland Cement Corporation.  San Francisco, Cal.

      “Organized under the laws of California February 25, 1907.  Succeeded Standard Portland Cement Company.  Owns ‘Portland’ cement manufacturing plant and 100 acres of land at Napa Junction, California.  Capacity, 3,000 bbls. Daily.

      Officers.  “G. T. Cameron, President; C. E. Green, A. F. Morrison, Vice-Presidents; L. F. Young, Secretary and Treasurer; J. T. Johnson, Manager.

      Directors.  W. R. Berry, G. T. Cameron, C. E. Green, A. F. Morrison, L. F. Young
      Head office, Crocker Building, San Francisco.
      Annual meeting third Thursday in January.

      Capital.  Shares, $100 – (Authorized) $4,000,000 (Outstanding)  $4,000,000”

    • Napa Junction (near), Napa County, California – the Standard Portland Cement Corporation  (Excerpt from Walker’s Manual of Far Western Corporations & Securities, 1913, pp. 211.  This book is available on Google Books.)

      Standard Portland Cement Corporation.  San Francisco, Cal.

      “Organized under the laws of California Feb. 25, 1907.  Succeeded Standard Portland Cement Co.  Owns ‘Portland’ cement manufacturing plant and 100 acres of land at Napa Junction, Cal.  Capacity, 3,000 bbls. Daily.

      Officers – Geo. T. Cameron, pres.; C. E. Green, Wellington Gregg, Jr., Vice-Pres.; L. F. Young, Sec. & Treas.; F. H. Davis, Plant Supt.; A. G. Lang, Asst. Supt.

      Directors – W. R. Berry, G. T. Cameron, C. E. Green, Wellington Gregg, Jr., A. F. Morrison
      “Head office, Crocker Bldg., San Francisco.
      “Annual meeting, 3rd Thurs. in Jan.

      “Capital – Shares, $100  - (Authorized) $4,000,000 (Outstanding)  $4,000,000
      Bonds.  The Standard Portland Cement Company 1st Mortgage 6% (Net) Sinking Fund Gold Bonds.
      “Dated May 1, 1902.  Callable May 1, 1907, or any interest date thereafter at 110.  Due May 1, 1922.
      “Interest May-Nov. 1, Company’s office, San Francisco.
      “Sinking Fund, commending May 1, 1905, $29,411.76 annually; bonds may be cancelled at par to equal that amount
      “Trustee, Union Trust Co., San Francisco
      “Outstanding May 15, 1913 - $213,000
      “Cancelled (Sinking Fund) – 287,000
      “Authorized $500,000”

    • Napa Junction (near), Napa County, California – the Standard Portland Cement Company Plant.  The following excerpt is from “Growth of Cement Industry on Pacific Coast,” by Charles A. Newhall, in Concrete-Cement Age, Vol. 2, Editors Allen Brett, Harvey Whipple, Concrete-Cement Age Publishing Co., April 1913, pp. 197.  (This magazine is available on Google Books.)

      “In 1903, two plants were started; the Standard Portland Cement Co., at Napa Junction, Cal., and the Pacific Portland Cement Co., at Cement,* Cal.  Both of these plants are near tide-water on San Francisco Bay.  Both companies were very successful from the start.  The cement compared favorably with any on the market at that time and was in great demand on account of the price being a little lower than that of the imported cement.  Both plants were enlarged from time to time and in 1906 each company built a new mill.” (* Cement, Cal., is located in Solano County – today this location is known as Cement Hill.)

    • Napa Junction (near), Napa County, California – the Standard Portland Cement Company Plant.  The following excerpt is from Concrete-Cement Age, Vol. 2, Editors Allen Brett, Harvey Whipple, Concrete-Cement Age Publishing Co., April 1913, pp. 143.  (This magazine is available on Google Books.)

      “Standard Portland Cement Co., San Francisco, has sold 30,000 bbls. For use in western reclamation work.  The contract price was $1.40 per bbl., f.o.b., cars at Napa Junction, California.”

    • Napa Junction (near), Napa County, California – the Standard Portland Cement Corporation  (Excerpt from Southern Pacific Bulletin, Vol. 1-6, Southern Pacific Company (Pacific Lines) Pacific Co., 1913.  A snippet of this book is available on Google Books.)

      “On account of the temporary closing down of the Standard Portland Cement Company plant at Napa Junction Trains Nos. 151, 152, 153, 154, 161 and 162 will be withdrawn between Napa Junction and Napa, effective, Wednesday, June 10, 1914, and continuing until further notice.”

    • Napa Junction (1/2 mile from), Napa County, California - Standard Portland Cement Corporation Plant & Limestone Quarry (Limestone) (Excerpts from Report XIV of the State Mineralogist - Mines and Mineral Resources of Portions of California, Chapters of State Mineralogist's Report - Biennial Period 1913-1914, Part II. “The Counties of Colusa, Glenn, Lake, Marin, Napa, Solano, Sonoma, Yolo,” by Walter W. Bradley, Field Assistant (field work in September, 1913), California State Mining Bureau, San Francisco, California, 1916, pp. 173-370.)

      Standard Portland Cement Corporation. The manufacture of cement in Napa County began with the operation of this company’s plant on March 17, 1903, since when it has been a continuous, steady producer. The capacity has been doubled from its initial figure, being now 2500 barrels of cement daily. Geo. F. Cameron is president, L. F. Young, secretary, with A. G. Lang, superintendent at the plant; home office, Crocker Building, San Francisco. The plant is in Sec. 19, T. 4 N., R. 3 W., mile from Napa Junction station of the Southern Pacific Railroad, with which it is connected by spur tracks direct to the mill. Tidewater is only 1 miles distant, but not utilized as yet. The same company also has a 12,000-barrel per day plant at Davenport in Santa Cruz County.

      “For the benefit of those who may not be familiar with the process of making ‘Portland’ cement, a short description is here given:

      “‘By a ‘Portland’ cement is meant the product obtained from the heating or calcining up to incipient fusion of intimate mixtures, either natural or artificial, of argillaceous with calcareous substances, the calcined product to contain at least 1.7 times as much of lime, by weight, as of the materials which give the lime its hydraulic properties, and to be finely pulverized after said calcination, and thereafter additions or substitutions for the purpose only of regulating certain properties of technical importance to be allowed to not exceeding 2 percent of the calcined product.’

      “This definition lacks the requirement of pulverizing or artificial mixing of the materials prior to burning; and thus permits the inclusion of some ‘natural Portlands’ under the specifications.

      “The ideal Portland cement would consist essentially of lime and silica in the proportions of 73.6 per cent and 26.4 per cent respectively (tricalcic silicate, 3CaO, SiO2), but as such a material can not be clinckered, except in the oxyhydrogen blowpipe or the electric furnace, it is impossible to produce it commercially at the present time. For this reason it is necessary in actual practice to have other ingredients present to act as a flux and thus lower the temperature of fusion, permitting the combination of the lime and the silica. Alumina (Al2O3) and iron oxide (Fe2O3) fill this role. The raw mixture before burning, is made up approximately as follows: 75 per cent lime carbonate (CaCO3); 20 per cent silica, alumina and iron oxide together; 5 per cent impurities, including magnesia, sulphur and alkalies, some of which are always present. These materials, after being dried, are ground fine, the grinding accomplishing also the additional purpose of thoroughly mixing the constituents. Then they are heated to the point of incipient fusion (2500 -3500 F. in the hottest zone), thus forming ‘clinker’ - a bluish black in color, and more or less porous in appearance. The clinker, in turn, is finely ground (up to 2 per cent of gypsum being added to retard setting), so that 90 per cent to 95 per cent will pass 100-mesh screen, and 75 per cent to 85 per cent through 200-mesh. This amount impalpable powder is the Portland cement of commerce, named ‘Portland’ originally, not from the locality where it was made, but from its resemblance after setting to the oolitic limestone found in Portland, England.

      “‘Eckel (‘Cements, Limes and Plaster,’ 1905, p. 494) says that normally a 60-foot kiln, working on a dry mixture will produce from 140 to 180 barrels of cement per day of twenty-four hours. Of coal as kiln fuel, 120 to 140 pounds are required per barrel of cement. One gallon of crude oil is equivalent to 10 pounds of coal, or 11 to 14 gallons of oil are required per barrel of cement. The capacity of a given kiln is lower with oil than with coal. Oil is used principally in California and Colorado. Of natural gas, 20,000 cubic feet are required as the equivalent of one ton of coal. Gas is used principally in Kansas and Ohio. For kiln linings, bricks of the following materials are used: Cement clinker, alumina, magnesia (calcined magnesite) and bauxite. The power and machinery required for grinding the clinker are about the same as for the raw materials; for, though the tonnage to be handled is only about two thirds, the material is much harder.

      “At the plant of the Pacific Portland Cement Corporation limestone and clay are obtained from pits close by the mill, though at present owing to a decrease in the lime content, a portion of high grade lime rock from near Santa Cruz is added, to ‘sweeten’ the charge, before passing through the drier. In the quarry the clay is loaded by hand, and the limestone by a Marion steam-shovel (1 cubic yards dipper), oil-fired (photos Nos. 44 and 46). The cars are drawn to the foot of the mill incline by cables and by a small steam locomotive. After passing through the gyratory crushers (one No. 9, three No. 5, Allis-Chalmers), the material goes to bins from which the rotary driers are fed. There are two rotary driers, oil-fired, 6' x 40', set on a grade of inch per foot, and running at 3 r.p.m. (photo no. 47). A steel ‘drag conveyer’ takes the dried product to the ball mill bins. The excess over the ball mill feed, as the quarries are not worked at night. There are thirteen ball mills, running 24 r.p.m., divided between the raw crushing and the clinker ends of the process. After the ball mills, the mixture is further ground in tube mills (seventeen in entire plant, each 5' x 22', running 24 r.p.m.) and then passes to the rotary kilns, where it is clinkered.

      Clay pit of the Standard Portland Cement Company, Napa Junction, Napa County. (Photo No. 44.) Clay pit of the Standard Portland Cement Company,
      Steam shovel in limestone quarry of Standard Portland Cement Company, Napa Junction, Napa County. (Photo No. 46.) Steam shovel in limestone quarry of Standard Portland Cement Company
      Rotary driers in mill of Standard Portland Cement Company, Napa Junction, Napa County. (Photo No. 47.) Rotary driers in mill of Standard Portland Cement Company

      “Samples are taken of the raw material after the drier, and again at the end of the ball mills. The finished product is sampled after the tube mills. This plant has two rotary kilns (photo No. 49), 7' 6" diameter x 125' long, and ten, 6' diameter x 60' long. The larger ones are run at r.p.m. and the others are at 1 revolution per 1 minutes. All are set at a grade of inch per foot. The capacity of the two large kilns is about 1000 barrels per day, while that of the ten small ones is about 1500 to 1600 barrels. They all use crude oil for fuel. As the clinker falls from the kiln it is sprayed with water, partly to cool it but principally to break it up, and then elevated to the cooling tower (seen in the right edge of the photograph). The cooling towers have baffle plates to check the fall, and have air circulation. The desirable average size of the clinker is about that of a hickory nut. The higher the percentage of lime, the small is the clinker; while with a lower lime content, the mixture has a tendency to fuse more and form larger masses. The lime content is kept at about 74.5 per cent CaCO3 before entering the kilns, the balance being clay. Gypsum is added to the clinker as it goes to the ball mills, and is represented by 1.75 per cent SO3 in the finished product. At the California plants all burn oil, it is not necessary to take into account the addition of fuel ash, as in the eastern plants using powdered coal. It is advisable to carry alumina as low as possible, to give the cement a slower set and great ultimate strength.

      “As there are times during inclement weather when the quarries can not be worked, the raw end of the plant has a capacity somewhat in excess of the finishing, and the surplus clinker is stored. Belt conveyers are used both to and from this storage pile. The next step is grinding the clinker, a repetition of that preceding the burning - first in ball mills and finishing in tube mills (photo No. 51). From the discharge end of the tube mill, the finely ground powder is drawn by a suction blower through a tube to the storage bins. The storage bins have a capacity of 125,000 barrels of cement. Here it is stacked (95 pounds each) using a mechanical filling device and loaded directly into the freight cars. Electric power is used throughout the mill, and belt and other mechanical conveyers wherever possible. About 3500 h.p. is consumed, there being two 800 h.p. motors besides a large number of smaller ones. The tube mills are all the trunnion type. The company has 200 men at work, with a monthly payroll of $16,000 to $18,000. The mill is operated continuously throughout the twenty-four hours. Twenty-five thousand gallons of water are used per day.

      Final tube mills in mill of Standard Portland cement Company, Napa Junction, Napa County. (Photo No. 51.) Final tube mills in mill of Standard Portland cement Company

      “As the geology of the deposit is described in Bulletin 38 (pages 180-182), it will only be summarized here. The limestone occurs in beds, 1 to 4 feet thick, which dip to the north at 40. It is fossiliferous and party (sic) crystalline, and is overlaid by a yellow, calcareous clay. ‘The clay at the east end of the quarry is very calcareous, but at the extreme west end it is more argillaceous. Overlaying all is a dark brown adobe.’ About 1/3 mile south of the main pit, the company is opening a new quarry in a low, rounded hill, exposing beds of crystalline limestone mixed with some clay. Photo No. 54 is a general view of the plant from the southeast. It shows the clinker storage pile on the right, and part of the clay pit in the foreground.

      “Bibl: Bull. 38, pp. 178-182; U.S.G.S., Bull 243, p. 121; Bull. 522, p. 121; Min. Res. 1912, Pt. II, p. 518; Cements, Limes and Plasters, E. C. Eckel, 1905.”

      Standard Portland Cement Company, general view of plant from southeast. (Photo No. 54.) Standard Portland Cement Company
    • Napa Junction (near), Napa County, California – the Standard Portland Cement Company Plant & Quarries  (Excerpt from Mines and Mineral Resources of the Counties of Colusa, Glenn, Lake, Marin, Napa, Solano, Sonoma, Yolo, Walter Wadsworth Bradley, California State Mining Bureau, California State Printing Office, 1915, pp. 90-96.  (This book is available on Google Books.)  (Please Note:  The following material appears to have copied most of the text from the Report XIV of the State Mineralogist – Mines and Mineral Resources of Portions of California, Chapters of State Mineralogist’s Report – Biennial Period 1913-1914, Part II. (above)  I’m including the entry here as Photo No. 49 was not included in the 1913-1914 article, and there may also be additional text included in this 1915 publication.

      Standard Portland Cement Corporation.  The manufacture of cement in Napa County began with the operation of this company’s plant on March 17, 1903, since when it has been a continuous, steady producer.  The capacity has been doubled from its initial figure, being now 2500 barrels of cement daily.  Geo. F. Cameron is president, L. F. Young, secretary, with A. G. Lang superintendent at the plant; home office, Crocker Building, San Francisco.  The plant is in Sec. 19, T. 4 N., R. 3 W., ½ mile from Napa Junction station of the Southern Pacific Railroad, with which it is connected by spur tracks direct to the mill.  Tidewater is only 1 ½ miles distant, but not utilized as yet.  The same company also has a 12,000-barrel per day plant at Davenport in Santa Cruz county.

      “For the benefit of those who may not be familiar with the process of making ‘Portland’ cement, a short description is here given:

      “‘By a Portland cement is meant the product obtained from the heating or calcining up to incipient fusion of intimate mixtures, either natural or artificial, of argillaceous with calcareous substances, the calcined product to contain at least 1.7 times as much of lime, by weight, as of the materials which give the lime its hydraulic properties, and to be finely pulverized after said calcination, and thereafter additions or substitutions for the purpose only of regulating certain properties of technical importance to be allowable to not exceeding 2 per cent of the calcined product.’

      (*  Professional Paper No. 28, Corps of Engineers, U.S.A., p. 30.)

      “This definition lacks the requirement of pulverizing or artificial mixing of the materials prior to burning; and thus permits the inclusion of some ‘natural Portlands’ under the specifications.

      “The ideal Portland cement would consist essentially of lime and silica in the proportions of 73.6 per cent and 26.4 per cent respectively (tricalcic silicate, 3CaO, SiO2), but as such a material can not be clinkered, except in the oxyhydrogen blowpipe or the electric furnace, it is impossible to produce it commercially at the present time.  For this reason it is necessary in actual practice to have other ingredients present to act as a flux and thus lower the temperature of fusion, permitting the combination of the lime and silica.  Alumina (Al2O3) and iron oxide (Fe2O3) fill this role.  The raw mixture, before burning, is made up approximately as follows:  75 per cent lime carbonate (CaCO3); 20 per cent silica, alumina and iron oxide together; 5 per cent impurities, including magnesia, sulphur and alkalies, some of which are always present.  These materials, after being dried, are ground fine, the grinding accomplishing also the additional purpose of thoroughly mixing the constituents.  Then they are heated to the point of incipient fusion (2500° – 3500° F. in the hottest zone), thus forming ‘clinker’ – a bluish black in color, and more or less porous in appearance.  The clinker, in turn, is finely ground (up to 2 per cent of gypsum being added to retard setting), so that 90 per cent to 95 per cent will pass 100-mesh screen, and 75 per cent to 85 per cent through 200-mesh.  This almost impalpable powder is the Portland cement of commerce, named ‘Portland’ originally, not from the locality where it was made, but from its resemblance after setting to the oolitic limestone found in Portland, England.

      “Eckel (‘Cements, Limes and Plasters,’ 1905, p. 494) says that normally a 60-foot kiln, working on a dry mixture will produce from 140 to 180 barrels of cement per day of twenty-four hours.  Of coal as kiln fuel, 120 to 140 pounds are required per barrel of cement.  One gallon of crude oil is equivalent to 10 pounds of coal, or 11 to 14 gallons of oil are required per barrel of cement.  The capacity of a given kiln is lower with oil than with coal.  Oil is used principally in California and Colorado.  Of natural gas, 20,000 cubic feet are required as the equivalent of one ton of coal.  Gas is used principally in Kansas and Ohio.  For kiln linings, bricks of the following materials are used:  Cement clinker, alumina, magnesia (calcined magnesite) and bauxite.  The power and machinery required for grinding the clinker are about the same as for the raw materials; for, though the tonnage to be handled is only about two thirds, the material is much harder.

      “At the plant of the Pacific Portland Cement Corporation limestone and clay are obtained from pits close by the mill, though at present owing to a decrease in the lime content, a portion of high grade lime rock from near Santa Cruz is added, to ‘sweeten’ the charge, before passing through the drier.  In the quarry the clay is loaded by hand, and the limestone by a Marion steam-shovel (1 ½ cubic yards dipper), oil-fired (photos Nos. 44 and 46.  The cars are drawn to the foot of the mill incline by cables and by a small steam locomotive.  After passing through the gyratory crushers (one No. 9, three No. 5, Allister-Chalmers), the material goes to bins from which the rotary driers are fed.  There are two rotary driers, oil-fired, 6’ x 40’, set on a grade of ¾ inch per foot, and running at 3 ½ r.p.m. (photo No. 47).  A steel ‘drag conveyer’ takes the dried product to the ball mill bins for the night shift feed, as the quarries are not worked at night.  There are thirteen ball mills, running 24 r.p.m., divided between the raw crushing and the clinker ends of the process.  After the ball mills, the mixture is further ground in tube mills (seventeen in entire plant, each 5’ x 22’, running 24 r.p.m.) and then passes to the rotary kilns, where it is clinkered.

      Clay pit of the Standard Portland Cement Company, Napa Junction, Napa County.  (Photo No. 44, pp. 91) Clay pit of the Standard Portland Cement Company, Napa Junction, Napa County, CA (ca 1913)
      Steam shovel in limestone quarry of Standard Portland Cement Company, Napa Junction, Napa County.  (Photo No. 46, pp. 92) Steam shovel in limestone quarry of Standard Portland Cement Company, Napa Junction, Napa County, CA (ca 1913)
      Rotary driers of the Standard Portland Cement Company, Napa Junction, Napa County.  (Photo No. 47, pp. 93) Rotary driers of the Standard Portland Cement Company, Napa Junction, Napa County, CA (ca 1913)

      “Samples are taken of the raw material after the drier, and again, at the end of the ball mills.  The finished product is sampled after the tube mills.  This plant has two rotary kilns (photo No. 49), 7’6” diameter x 125’ long, and ten, 6’diameter x 60’ long.  The larger ones are run at ½ r.p.m. and the others at 1 revolution per 1 ¼ minutes.  All are set at a grade of ¾ inch per foot.  The capacity of the two large kilns is about 1000 barrels per day, while that of the ten small ones is about 1500 to 1600 barrels.  They all use crude oil for fuel.  As the clinker falls from the kiln it is sprayed with water, partly to cool it but principally to break it up, and then elevated to the cooling tower (seen in the right edge of the photograph).  The cooling towers have baffle plates to check the fall, and have air circulation.  The desirable average size of the clinker is about that of a hickory nut.  The higher the percentage of lime, the smaller is the clinker; while with a lower lime content, the mixture has a tendency to fuse more and form larger masses.  The lime content is kept at about 74.5 per cent CaCO3before entering the kilns, the balance being clay.  Gypsum is added to the clinker as it goes to the ball mills, and is represented by 1.75 per cent SO3 in the finished product.  As the California plants all burn oil, it is not necessary to take into account the addition of fuel ash, as in the eastern plants using powdered coal.  It is advisable to carry alumina as low as possible, to give the cement a slower set and greater ultimate strength.

      Rotary kilns in the Standard Portland Cement Company, Napa Junction, Napa County.  (Photo No. 49, pp. 94) Rotary kilns in the Standard Portland Cement Company, Napa Junction, Napa County, CA (ca 1913)

      “As there are times during inclement weather where the quarries can not be worked, the raw end of the plant has a capacity somewhat in excess of the finishing, and the surplus clinker is stored.  Belt conveyors are used both to and from this storage pile.  The next step is grading the clinker, a repetition of that preceding the burning – first in ball mills and finishing in tube mills (photo No. 51).  From the discharge end of the tube mill, the finely ground powder is drawn by a suction blower through a tube to the storage bins.  The storage bins have a capacity of 125,000 barrels of cement.  Here it is sacked (95 pounds each) using a mechanical filling device and loaded directly into the freight cars.  Electric power is used throughout the mill, and belt and other mechanical conveyers wherever possible.  About 3500 h.p. is consumed, there being two 800 h.p. motors besides a large number of smaller ones.  The tube mills are all of the trunnion type.  The company has 200 men at work, with a monthly payroll of $16,000 to $18,000.  The mill is operated continuously throughout the twenty-four hours.  Twenty-five thousand gallons of water are used per day.

      Final tube mills in mill of Standard Portland Cement Company, Napa Junction, Napa County.  (Photo No. 51, pp. 95) Final tube mills in mill of Standard Portland Cement Company, Napa Junction, Napa County, CA (ca 1913)

      “As the geology of the deposit is described in Bulletin 38 (pages 180-182), it will only be summarized here.  The limestone occurs in beds, 1 to 4 feet thick, which dip to the north at 40°.  It is fossiliferous and party (sic) crystalline, and is overlaid by a yellow, calcareous clay.  ‘The clay at the east end of the quarry is very calcareous, but at the extreme west end it is more argillaceous.  Overlaying all is a dark brown adobe.’  About 1/3 mile south of the main pit, the company is opening a new quarry in a low, rounded hill, exposing beds of crystalline limestone mixed with some clay.  Photo No. 54 is a general view of the plant from the southeast.  It shows the clinker storage pile on the right, and part of the clay pit in the foreground.

      “Bibl.:  Bull. 38, pp. 178-182; U.S.G.S., Bull. 243, p. 121; Bull. 522, p. 121; Min. Res. 1912, Pt. II, p. 518; Cements, Limes and Plasters, E. C. Eckel, 1905.”

      Standard Portland Cement Company, general view of plant from southeast.”  (Photo No. 54, pp. 96) Standard Portland Cement Company, general view of plant from southeast, Napa Junction, Napa County, CA (ca 1913)
    • Napa Junction (near), Napa County, California – the Standard Portland Cement Co. (Corporation) taken over by the Santa Cruz Portland Cement Company, from Concrete:  A Monthly Magazine of the Construction Field, Cement Mill Edition, Vol. 15, Concrete Publishing Corporation, August 1919, pp. 141.  (This book is available on Google Books.)

      Concrete – Men & Mills:  Notes From the Field

      Cement Companies Consolidate

      “It is reported that the Santa Cruz Portland Cement Co. is taking over the properties of the Standard Portland Cement Corporation.  A committee, comprising Andrew A. Moore, E. J. Schneider, Rudolph Herold, Jr., and A. F. Morrison, have recommended to their fellow stockholders that the offer of the Santa Cruz company of $22.50 a share for the stock of the Standard Portland Cement Corporation be accepted.  The purchasing corporation will assume the debt of the Standard Portland Cement Co. and will take over everything belonging to that concern, including the plant at Napa Junction, California, with the 100 acres of land owned there.  The capital stock of the Standard company amounts to 40,000, at a par value of $100, of which there are $3,383,200 in shares outstanding.  The outstanding bonded indebtedness is $65,000, assumed by the Santa Cruz company.”

      “The Standard Portland Cement Corporation was organized in 1907, taking over the properties of the Standard Portland Cement Co.  The Santa Cruz Portland Cement Co. was organized in 1905 and has an authorized and outstanding capital of $5,000,000 in par value of $100 shares.”

    • Napa Junction (near), Napa County, California – the Standard Portland Cement Company  (Excerpt from Report XVII of the State Mineralogist:  Mining in California in 1920, California State Mining Bureau, San Francisco, January 1921. This book is available on Google Books.)

      Cement.

      Standard Portland Cement Corporation.  This company has two cement plants, one at Davenport, Santa Cruz County, and one at Napa Junction, Napa County.  F. H. Davis is general superintendent of both plants.  The Napa Junction plant was shut down in September, 1918, and has not been in operation since.” 

    • Napa Junction (near), Napa County, California – the Standard Portland Cement Company Plant.  The following excerpt is from Concrete:  A monthly magazine of the construction field, Cement Mill Edition Vol. 19, No. 1 - July 1921-Dec. 1921, pp. 131. (This book is available on Google Books.)

      Concrete – Men and Mills:  Notes from the Field

      “The Napa Junction plant of the Standard Portland Cement Corp. has been closed down for almost three years, and officials do not know at present if it will be operated again.”

    • Napa Junction (near), Napa County, California – the Standard Portland Cement Corporation Plant  (Excerpt from Mining in California, Vol. 18, California State Mining Bureau, 1922, pp. 46.  This book is available on Google Books.)

      Napa County.

      Standard Portland Cement Company:  Home office, Pacific Building, San Francisco, is reported to be dismantling its plant at Napa Junction, which formerly was a large producer of cement, but which has been idle since 1918.  It is understood that in the future this company’s operations will be confined to its plant at Davenport thirteen miles northwest of Santa Cruz.”

    • Napa Junction (southeast of), Napa County, California – the Standard Portland Cement Company  (From Geology and Mineral Deposits of an Area North of San Francisco Bay, California:  Vacaville, Antioch, Mount Vaca, Carquinez, Mare Island, Sonoma, Santa Rosa, Petaluma, and Point Reyes Quadrangles, Bulletin 149, by Charles E. Weaver, California State Division of Mines, September 1949.  Used with permission, California Department of Conservation, California Geological Survey.)

      “Limestone, though not widely distributed in the area investigated, once helped to support two cement plants.  The Standard Portland Cement Company used an argillaceous limestone interstratified with Cretaceous beds near Napa Junction; travertine supplied the Pacific Portland Cement Company’s plant at Cement….”

      “The limestone deposit southeast of Napa Junction from 1903 to 1908 furnished material to a plant owned by the Standard Portland Cement Company.  The limestone is interbedded with Knoxville shales and ranges from argillaceous varieties to pure limestone. The deposit is described* as containing regular beds of limestone from 1 foot to 4 feet thick, striking N. 70° E. and dipping 65° NW., which are overlain by a yellow calcareous clay.  About 100 feet of limestone and 50 feet of the clay were exposed in the pit from which both materials were obtained.  It is stated that the clay became more calcareous toward the east and merged into limestone.  This company also failed after an attempt was made to supplement the local limestone with material brought from near Santa Cruz….”

      (* Page 88, footnote 70:  Logan, C. A., Limestone in California: California Jour. Mines and Geology, vol. 43, p. 332, 1947.)

    • Napa Junction (near), Napa County, California – the Standard Portland Cement Company  (Excerpt from Bulletin, Issue 176, Bulletin, California State Mining Bureau, California Division of Mines, California Division of Mines and Geology, 1957, pp. 119.  (A snippet of this book is available on Google Books.)

      “1902-3.  Establishment of two plants, one near Napa, Napa County, by Standard Portland Cement Company and one at Cement, near Fairfield, Solano County, by Pacific Portland Cement.  The Napa plant closed in 1919 and the Fairfield plant in 1927, both because raw materials were exhausted.”

      “1906.  Opening of the plant at Davenport, Santa Cruz County, by Standard Portland Cement Company.”

    • Below are articles about the early Standard Portland Cement business in the Napa Junction area of Napa County including information on the Basalt Rock Company that purchased the buildings and properties in the late 1940s:
  • Napa Junction / American Canyon, Napa County, California - Standard Portland Cement Co. / Basalt Rock Co. Ruins Photographic Tour. We visited these ruins and photographed them with permisson in late May 2011 (These ruins are located on private property. You should obtain permission before entering the property.) This property is slated to become the new American Canyon Town Center.
    Standard Portland Cement Company, general view of plant from southeast. Photo of Standard Portland Cement Company / Corporation Ruins Basalt Rock Co. Rotunda Building
  • Napa Station (east of), Napa County, California - the Juarez Quarry* (Aggregate Quarry) (from “Mines and Mineral Resources, Napa County,” by Fenelon F. Davis, Assistant Mining Engineer, California State Division of Mines, Manuscript submitted for publication September 1947, in California Journal of Mines and Geology, Vol. 44, No. 2, April 1948, State of California, Department of Natural Resources, Division of Mines, pp. 159-188. Used with permission, California Department of Conservation, California Geological Survey, pp. 184-186.) (* Footnote 39, pp. 187: Averill, C. V. Averill, C. V., Mineral resources of Napa County : California Div. Mines Rept. 25, p. 240, 1929.)

    Location: SE ¼ sec. 11, T. 5 N., R. 4 W., M.D. (projected), approximately 2 miles east of Napa station off Terrace drive on the south side of Tulucay Creek.

    Owner: M. L. Reidenback, 115 Willow Street, Napa.

    “The Juarez quarry was formerly operated by G. E. Errington and was purchased by the present owner in 1936. Operations are conducted on a small knoll of basalt rock about a quarter of a mile wide and half a mile long, which rises to an elevation of 170 feet. The rock is jointed along planes approximately horizontal and cross jointed in various directions. There is no brush or overburden but a thin clay soil penetrates the joint planes at many points, especially near the surface. Variations from fresh rock to highly altered material are seen. The fresh rock is usually more massive and breaks into large fragments 2 feet in diameter suitable for riprap. The jointed areas are usually more weathered, the degree of alteration having in some places led to abandonment of the working face.

    “The hill has been worked as a series of disconnected benches. Five different levels with 25-foot faces are discernable. Present work is on the highest bench. The face is blasted with 40 percent explosives and fired electrically.

    “The broken rock is loaded with a 3/8-cubic yard crawler-mounted shovel and hauled by truck to the coarse-feed bin where the plus 12-inch is hand sledged and the minus 12-inch passes through a grizzly to a 12-inch by 36-inch Cedar Rapids primary crusher. The crusher discharges to a 1 1/2-inch vibrating screen. The undersize is caught by a belt conveyor and carried to the 1-inch stockpile; the screen oversize is passed through a 32-inch Tel-Smith cone crusher. The plus ¼-inch from the secondary crusher is lifted by bucket elevator to the top of the mill house and emptied onto a graduated screen set over the bunkers. This screen makes three products: birdseye, ¼- to ½-inch; inch rock, ½- 1-inch; and 2-inch rock, 1- to 2-inch. The minus ¼-inch products from the secondary crusher are discharged to storage as dust, and sand. Maximum production is 150 tons per 8-hour day. Four men are employed. These products are sold chiefly for use in the Napa County road system, as the county no longer maintains its own quarry and crushing plant.”

    • Napa Station (east of), Napa County, California - the Juarez Quarry (Aggregates) (From Geology and Mineral Deposits of an Area North of San Francisco Bay, California: Vacaville, Antioch, Mount Vaca, Carquinez, Mare Island, Sonoma, Santa Rosa, Petaluma, and Point Reyes Quadrangles, Bulletin 149, by Charles E. Weaver, California State Division of Mines, September 1949. Used with permission, California Department of Conservation, California Geological Survey.)

      "Juarez Quarry. The Juarez Quarry* is a pit owned by M. L. Reidenback and is about 2 miles east of the Napa Station, off Terrace Drive and on the south side of Tulucay Creek. It has been a producer of crushed rock since before 1900. An inclined basalt flow is worked. Where fresh, this is a purple-black rock, very hard and fine grained. Most surfaces, however, have a white coating, perhaps an eighth of an inch thick; weathering is pronounced, especially near the surface. Well-developed columnar joining is present. Beneath the flow are beds of tuff a few inches thick. They are yellow white and non-uniform; some contain pumice.

      (* Page 109, footnote 98: Averill, C. V., Napa County: California Div. Mines Rept. 25, p. 240, 1929. Davis, F. F., "Mines and mineral resources of Napa County, California," California Jour. Mines and Geology, vol. 44, p. 187, 1948.)

      "An old river channel cutting the tuff beds has been discovered. This is filled with cobbles and sufficient clay to tightly pack the gravel. Most of the cobbles, which range from walnut size to cocoanut (sic) size, are volcanic; but a few are chert and sandstone.

      "The deposit has been worked with disconnected benches at several levels with faces 25 feet high. Blasting is required, and a power shovel is used to load broken rock into trucks for haulage to the nearby crusher. The primary crusher discharges to a screen the oversize, which is recrushed in a cone crusher. The undersize from the first screen goes to the 1-inch stock pile, while the product of the secondary crusher is sized on a graduated screen. The produce is used chiefly for road construction by Napa County."

  • Pope Valley, Napa County, California - Lime Kilns (Kilns) (Excerpts from Report XIV of the State Mineralogist - Mines and Mineral Resources of Portions of California, Chapters of State Mineralogist’s Report - Biennial Period 1913-1914, Part II. "The Counties of Colusa, Glenn, Lake, Marin, Napa, Solano, Sonoma, Yolo," by Walter W. Bradley, Field Assistant (field work in September, 1913), California State Mining Bureau, San Francisco, California, 1916, pp. 173-370.)

    "In Pope Valley there were at one time two kilns in operation, but they have been idle for several years.

    "Bibl.: R. XIII, p. 629."

  • Pope Valley, Napa County, California - Sandstone Deposit (Sandstone) (Excerpts from Report XIV of the State Mineralogist - Mines and Mineral Resources of Portions of California, Chapters of State Mineralogist's Report - Biennial Period 1913-1914, Part II. "The Counties of Colusa, Glenn, Lake, Marin, Napa, Solano, Sonoma, Yolo," by Walter W. Bradley, Field Assistant (field work in September, 1913), California State Mining Bureau, San Francisco, California, 1916, pp. 173-370.)

    "There is sandstone in Maxwell Canyon, Pope Valley, 15 miles north of Rutherford, on the Maxwell and Hardin Ranches...." As of 1914, this sandstone deposit was undeveloped.

  • Rutherford (15 miles from) and Pope Valley, Napa County, California - Sandstone in Maxwell Canon (Sandstone) (From The Structural and Industrial Materials of California, Bulletin No. 38, California, State Mining Bureau, San Francisco, California, 1906.)

    "Maxwell Canon. About 15 miles from Rutherford, on the Maxwell ranch, and also on the Hardin ranch, in Maxwell Canon, in Pope Valley, there is an abundance of sandstone which can be readily taken out in any desired dimensions. It is a fine, even-grained, compact, light gray sandstone, and works well. It has been used in the cemeteries at Napa and St. Helena. No regular quarry face has been opened as yet, owing to the long wagon haul to railroad or water."

  • St. Helena (northwest of), Napa County, California - Bieber Basalt Quarry (Basalt) (Excerpts from Report XIV of the State Mineralogist - Mines and Mineral Resources of Portions of California, Chapters of State Mineralogist's Report - Biennial Period 1913-1914, Part II. "The Counties of Colusa, Glenn, Lake, Marin, Napa, Solano, Sonoma, Yolo," by Walter W. Bradley, Field Assistant (field work in September, 1913), California State Mining Bureau, San Francisco, California, 1916, pp. 173-370.)

    "Bieber Quarry, P. P. Bieber, St. Helena, owner. It is 1 mile northwest from St. Helena post office and mile from the county road, at an elevation of about 500 feet. The rock is basalt and was first quarried in 1911 under lease, for paving blocks. Not operated in 1913."

  • St. Helena, Napa County, California - the Carver Quarry

    (Carver Quarry - See: St. Helena (northeast of), Napa County, California - the Jursch Quarry below.)

  • St. Helena (north of), Napa County, California - the Davis Quarry (Trachytic Tuff) (From The Structural and Industrial Materials of California, Bulletin No. 38, California, State Mining Bureau, San Francisco, California, 1906.)

    "Davis Quarry; Dr. C. E. Davis, St. Helena, owner; 2 miles north of St. Helena, on the Sanatorium road. The stone is a hard reddish trachytic tuff, showing flow structure, and is quarried from the outcrops. It was used in the construction of the Hunt Block in St. Helena.

    "Dr. Davis also has an exposure of soft buff-colored tuff at the bridge on the Sanatorium road, 1 mile north of St. Helena."

    • St. Helena (2 miles from), Napa County, California - Davis Trachytic Tuff Quarry (Trachytic Tuff) (Excerpts from Report XIV of the State Mineralogist - Mines and Mineral Resources of Portions of California, Chapters of State Mineralogist's Report - Biennial Period 1913-1914, Part II. "The Counties of Colusa, Glenn, Lake, Marin, Napa, Solano, Sonoma, Yolo," by Walter W. Bradley, Field Assistant (field work in September, 1913), California State Mining Bureau, San Francisco, California, 1916, pp. 173-370.)

      "Davis Quarry, Dr. C. E. Davis, St. Helena, owner. On the Davis ranch, 2 miles from St. Helena on the Sanitarium road, is a hard, reddish trachytic tuff which has been used locally for building purposes. At the time of our visit rock was being taken out from the bridge at the north end of Main street, St. Helena. Dr. Davis also owns a deposit of softer stone nearer town on the same road, but no quarrying has been done there.

      "Bibl.: Bull. 38, p. 155."

  • St. Helena, Napa County, California - the Holt Perlite Rock Quarry. From Geologic Guidebook of the San Francisco Bay Counties: History, Landscape, Geology, Fossils, Minerals, Industry, and Routes to Travel, Bulletin 154, "California Stone Indusry," Olaf P. Jenkins, Chief, California Division of Mines, San Francisco, California, December, 1951. (Used with permission, California Department of Conservation, California Geological Survey.)
    Figure 11. Holt Perlite Rock Quarry, Holt Ranch east of St. Helena, Napa County. Note columnar jointing. Holt Perlite Rock Quarry
  • St. Helena (northeast of), Napa County, California - the Jursch Quarry (formerly the Carver Quarry) (Trachytic Tuff) (From The Structural and Industrial Materials of California, Bulletin No. 38, California, State Mining Bureau, San Francisco, California, 1906.)

    "Jursch Quarry (formerly the Carver Quarry); G. O. Jursch, St. Helena, owner; about 1 miles northeast of St. Helena, on a private road off the Howell Mountain road. The stone is a light yellow trachytic tuff, and has been used in a number of buildings in St. Helena and also in some bridges in the county."

    • St. Helena (northeast of), Napa County, California - Jursch Trachytic Tuff Quarry (formerly Carver) (Trachytic Tuff) (Excerpts from Report XIV of the State Mineralogist - Mines and Mineral Resources of Portions of California, Chapters of State Mineralogist's Report - Biennial Period 1913-1914, Part II. "The Counties of Colusa, Glenn, Lake, Marin, Napa, Solano, Sonoma, Yolo," by Walter W. Bradley, Field Assistant (field work in September, 1913), California State Mining Bureau, San Francisco, California, 1916, pp. 173-370.)

      "Jursch Quarry (formerly Carver), Mrs. Lovella Priest, Sacramento, owner. This quarry, about 1 miles northeast from St. Helena, has been idle several years. The stone is trachytic tuff.

      "Bibl.: Bull. 38, p. 156."

  • St. Helena (north of), Napa County, California - Lenz Basalt Quarry (Basalt) (Excerpts from Report XIV of the State Mineralogist - Mines and Mineral Resources of Portions of California, Chapters of State Mineralogist's Report - Biennial Period 1913-1914, Part II. "The Counties of Colusa, Glenn, Lake, Marin, Napa, Solano, Sonoma, Yolo," by Walter W. Bradley, Field Assistant (field work in September, 1913), California State Mining Bureau, San Francisco, California, 1916, pp. 173-370.)

    "Lenz Quarry, S. Lenz, St. Helena, owner. It is on the Calistoga road, 2 miles north of St. Helena post office. It is proposed to put in a crushing plant of 80 cubic yards daily capacity to utilize the spalls and waste from block operations for road work".

    • St. Helena (northwest of), Napa County, California - Lenz and Son Basalt Quarry and Plant (from “Mines and Mineral Resources, Napa County,” by Fenelon F. Davis, Assistant Mining Engineer, California State Division of Mines, Manuscript submitted for publication September 1947, in California Journal of Mines and Geology, Vol. 44, No. 2, April 1948, State of California, Department of Natural Resources, Division of Mines, pp. 159-188. Used with permission, California Department of Conservation, California Geological Survey.)

      Location: SE ¼ sec. 22, T. 8 N., R. 6 W., M.D., about 2 ¼ miles northwest of Saint Helena on Highway 29 and half a mile west of the Southern Pacific railroad.

      Owner: W. J. Lenz, Saint Helena .

      “Mr. Lenz operates a plant manufacturing concrete building blocks and other concrete products on part of the 107-acre tract owned by him. The basalt quarry on the premises is no longer worked. It has become more economical to buy graded river sand and aggregate from the Basalt Rock Company. Special-purpose sands are ‘imported’ from Felton in Santa Cruz county and other localities.

      “The plant consists of raw-material bins, mixing machine, tamping machines, vibrating machine, steam-curing sheds and curing yards. Six men are employed during the winter season, and the possibility of expanding the force during the summer is very good. Among the more important concrete products manufactured are: building blocks, culverts, drain pipe, irrigation pipe, sewer pipe, and septic tanks.”

  • St. Helena (2 miles from), Napa County, California - Mee Ranch Tuff Quarry (Tuff) (Excerpts from Report XIV of the State Mineralogist - Mines and Mineral Resources of Portions of California, Chapters of State Mineralogist's Report - Biennial Period 1913-1914, Part II. "The Counties of Colusa, Glenn, Lake, Marin, Napa, Solano, Sonoma, Yolo," by Walter W. Bradley, Field Assistant (field work in September, 1913), California State Mining Bureau, San Francisco, California, 1916, pp. 173-370.)

    "Mee Ranch. A little stone (tuff) has been taken recently (circa 1913) from the Mee ranch, 2 miles from St. Helena on the east side near the creamery."

  • St. Helena (northwest of), Napa County, California - the Moffat Quarry (Trachytic Tuff) (From The Structural and Industrial Materials of California, Bulletin No. 38, California, State Mining Bureau, San Francisco, California, 1906.)

    "Moffat Quarry; James Moffat, 915 Geary street, San Francisco, owner; D. Brusk, superintendent; about 2 miles northwest of St. Helena, near the reservoir. The stone is a light buff trachytic tuff; it can be quarried in large pieces, and is uniform in color. It was used in the construction of the beautiful new school building in St. Helena."

    • St. Helena (northwest of), Napa County, California - Moffatt Trachytic Tuff Quarry (Trachytic Tuff) (Excerpts from Report XIV of the State Mineralogist - Mines and Mineral Resources of Portions of California, Chapters of State Mineralogist's Report - Biennial Period 1913-1914, Part II. "The Counties of Colusa, Glenn, Lake, Marin, Napa, Solano, Sonoma, Yolo," by Walter W. Bradley, Field Assistant (field work in September, 1913), California State Mining Bureau, San Francisco, California, 1916, pp. 173-370.)

      "Moffatt Quarry, Moffatt Estate, owner; B. Bruck, St. Helena, superintendent. It is 2 miles northwest from St. Helena, and has not been worked for several years.

      "Bibl.: Bull. 38, p. 156."

  • St. Helena (southeast of), Napa County, California - the Taplin Quarry (Trachytic Tuff) (From The Structural and Industrial Materials of California, Bulletin No. 38, California, State Mining Bureau, San Francisco, California, 1906.)

    "Taplin Quarry; W. H. & J. O. Taplin, St. Helena, owners; about 2 miles southeast of St. Helena, on the east side of the road. This quarry formerly furnished considerable rock for building purposes in St. Helena, but has not produced much of late. The stone is a trachytic tuff."

  • St. Helena (northwest of), Napa County, California - Tychson Basalt Quarry (Basalt) (Excerpts from Report XIV of the State Mineralogist - Mines and Mineral Resources of Portions of California, Chapters of State Mineralogist's Report - Biennial Period 1913-1914, Part II. "The Counties of Colusa, Glenn, Lake, Marin, Napa, Solano, Sonoma, Yolo," by Walter W. Bradley, Field Assistant (field work in September, 1913), California State Mining Bureau, San Francisco, California, 1916, pp. 173-370.)

    "Tychson Quarry. Mrs. J. Tychson, St. Helena, owner. On the Tychson place, 2 miles northwest of St. Helena on the Calistoga road, a paving-block quarry was opened up in 1911. The rock is a fine-grained bluish basalt. The spalls and waste will be utilized for crushed rock for road work around St. Helena, under contract awarded by the county supervisors in September, 1913."

  • Yountville (northwest of), Napa County, California - Napa County Rock Plant (Excerpts from Report XIV of the State Mineralogist - Mines and Mineral Resources of Portions of California, Chapters of State Mineralogist's Report - Biennial Period 1913-1914, Part II. "The Counties of Colusa, Glenn, Lake, Marin, Napa, Solano, Sonoma, Yolo," by Walter W. Bradley, Field Assistant (field work in September, 1913), California State Mining Bureau, San Francisco, California, 1916, pp. 173-370.)

    "Napa County Rock Plant. The county owns 3 acres on the hill at the turn of the county road 1 mile northwest of Yountville. The crushing and screening plant is driven by a 20 horsepower electric motor, power being bought from the Napa Valley Electric Railway, whose tracks as well as those of the Southern Pacific Company, are within 100 feet distant (see photo No. 33). The quarry was opened up about 1909, and is worked principally during the summer months. The capacity of the plant is 100 cubic yards per day, and requires 15 men when in full operation. The rock is a somewhat decomposed volcanic. The product is used for road metal in the surrounding district, and is hauled from the plant in wide-tired, bottom-dump wagons holding 6 cubic yards each. These wagons are owned by the county, which pays 50 cents to 65 cents per cubic yard, according to distance, for the hauling, horses being furnished by the drivers. The total cost is stated to be about $1 per cubic yard of rock, laid down at the point of use."

    Photo No. 33. Crusher and bins at Napa County Rock Plant, near Yountville. Crusher and bins at Napa County Rock Plant

[Top of Page]