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Kern County - List of Stone Quarries (Continued)

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  • Neenach (near), Kern County, California – the Antelope Valley Marble Quarry  (Marble)  (The following excerpt below from California Journal of Mines and Geology, Volumes 12-13, California. State Mining Bureau, California, Division of Mines and Geology, 1894, pp. 629.  This book is available on Google Full View Books.)

    Los Angeles County*

    Antelope Valley Marble Quarry – It is situated in Antelope Valley, 40 miles N.E. of Lancaster.  J. (John) Rebman, of 317 Byrne Block, Los Angeles, Secretary.”

    (*  Some sources incorrectly describe the Antelope Valley Marble Quarry as located in Los Angeles County rather than Kern County.)

    • Neenach (near), Kern County, California – the Antelope Valley Marble Quarry  (Marble)  (From Stone Magazine, Vol. 8, 1894, Stone Magazine Review Publishing Co., pp. 259.  This book is available on Google Full View Books.)

      A California Marble Quarry.

      To the Editor Stone:

      “Sir: - I beg leave to call your attention to article on page 41 in December issue, under the heading of ‘Mono’s Beautiful Onyx,’ in regard to Bridgeport opening the Antelope Valley Marble Quarries.  The Antelope Valley Marble Quarries are near the line of Los Angeles and Kern counties, and owned by the Antelope Valley Marble Co., and were opened by J. Retman and myself.  We will, if possible, make a display at the Mid-Winter Fair.  At present we are furnishing marble for one of the largest buildings in this city.  Later I will send you samples and further explanations of the quarries.

      Los Angeles Cal. - Edw. (Edward) A. Smith.”

      Below is the article from the Dec. 1893 issue of Stone magazine, pp. 41, that is referred to in the above letter to the editor by Edward A. Smith.  (This publication is available on Google Full View Books.)

    Mono’s Beautiful Onyx

    “California is always turning up some new resource, and now Mono county comes forward with an onyx discovery and a beautiful exhibit for the Midwinter Fair, says a San Francisco exchange.

    “The travertine and onyx discoveries near Bridgeport, Mono county, are attracting much deserved attention, and promise to materialize into a great industry...Scientific men have pronounced it a ‘wonderful formation,’ but none seemed to know that the immense backbone protruding above the Hot Springs basin, Mono county, is a mass of travertine and onyx, of which the former is the only known heavy deposit in this county, all of that material used in the United States being imported from Italy...Bridgeport is opening the quarry in Antelope Valley, and will make a grand and valuable display at the Midwinter Fair...This week a block of travertine was quarried seven by four and a half feet and two feet thick, and weighing about five tons.  It will be dressed and polished and shipped to the fair, where it will attract great attention....”

    • Neenach (near), Kern County, California – the Antelope Valley Marble Quarry  (Marble)  The following excerpt is from “West End of Antelope Valley – Liebre Ranch,” by T. W. Haskins, Los Angeles, in The Land of Sunshine, June 1894 – located after the table of contents.  This book is available on Google Full View Books)

      “...A marble quarry was opened, a sample of which may be seen in the corridors of the Stimson building, Los Angeles...”

    • Neenach (near), Kern County, California – the Antelope Valley Marble Quarry  (Marble)  (The following excerpt is from The Mine, Quarry and Metallurgical Record of the United States, Canada and Mexico:  Containing carefully prepared and revised lists of companies and individuals engaged in, and information regarding the mining, quarrying, and kindred and dependent industries of North America. Together with the..., Mine and Quarry News Bureau, 1897, pp. 375. This book is available on Google Full View Books)

      Fairmont, Los Angeles Co. M.O.  Ry. Lancaster, 841.  Banking town Los Angeles.
      Marble - Antelope Valley Marble Co.

    • Neenach (near), Kern County, California – the Antelope Valley Marble Quarry  (Marble)  (The following excerpt is from Report of the Commissioner-General for the United States to the International Universal Exposition, Paris, 1900...February 28, 1901, Volume 4, United Commission to the Paris Exposition, Ferdinand Wythe Peck, Government Printing Office, 1901, pp. 383. This book is available on Google Full View Books.)

      “Seager, A. L., Antelope Valley, Los Angeles County, Cal.:  Marble”*

      (*  Some sources describe the Antelope Valley Marble Quarry as located in Los Angeles County rather than Kern County.)

    • Neenach (near), Kern County, California – the Antelope Valley Marble Quarry (From The Structural and Industrial Materials of California, Bulletin No. 38, California, State Mining Bureau, San Francisco, California, 1906.)

      Antelope Valley Marble Quarry, in Sec. 2, T. 9 N., R. 17 W., S. B. M.; Southern California Marble Company, J. T. Houx, Call Building, San Francisco, owner. Near Neenach, on the south slope of the Tehachapi range. A large body of fine-grained marble, consisting of a number of beds of various colors, dipping at an angle of about 35 degrees into the mountain. In the quarry is found white marble with reddish-brown veins, and with heavy blue veins. This marble has been used in the Stimson Block, Los Angles, in the Spreckels band stand, Golden Gate Park, and Goldberg & Bowen's store, Sutter street, San Francisco, etc. (See also XIIIth Report of California State Mining Bureau, p. 629.) This quarry has been idle for the past two years.”

      (pp. 367)    List of Specimens in the Museum of the State Mining Bureau

      Marble – Kern County

      San Emidio Canon.
      Tehachapi Bright’s Valley.  (also “Brite Valley” in other sources)
      Tahachapi Tahachapi Building Stone Co.

      Marble – Los Angeles County

      “Antelope Valley A. L. Seager....”

    • Neenach (near), Kern County, California - the Antelope Valley Marble Quarry (Marble) (Excerpt from Report XIV of the State Mineralogist - Mines and Mineral Resources of Portions of California, Chapters of State Mineralogist's Report - Biennial Period 1913-1914, Part IV. "The Counties of Fresno, Kern, Kings, Madera, Mariposa, Merced, San Joaquin, Stanislaus," by G. Chester Brown, Field Assistant (field work in August and September, 1914), California State Mining Bureau, San Francisco, California, 1916, pp. 427-634.)

      “Antelope Valley Marble Quarry, owned by the Southern California Marble Company, is located in Sec. 2, T. 9 N., R. 17 W., S.B.M., near Neenach, on the south slope of the Tehachapi range. The deposit consists of a large body of fine-grained marble, consisting of a number of beds of various colors, dipping at an angle of 35° into the mountain. In the quarry is found white marble with reddish-brown and heavy blue veins. This marble has been used in the Stimson Block, Los Angeles, in the Spreckels bandstand, Golden Gate Park, Goldberg & Bowen’s store, Sutter street, San Francisco. Quarry has been idle since 1904.

      “Bibl.: Report VI, part 1, p. 23; XIII, p. 629; Bull. No. 38, p. 100.”

    • Neenach (near), Kern County, California – the Antelope Valley Marble Quarry  (Marble)  Mines and Mineral Resources of the Counties of Butte, Lassen, Modoc, Sutter and Tehama, W. Burling Tucker and Clarence Almon Waring, California State Mining Bureau, California State Printing Office, 1917, pp. 22.  (This publication is available on Google Full View Books.)

      “Prof. R. T. Hill of the U.S. Geological Survey, states that on the southeast slope of the Tehachapi Range, and the northwest border of the Antelope Valley, limestone outcrops extensively with northeast and southwest strike, dipping steeply into the mountains.  The strike of these beds should carry them into the northwest corner of Los Angeles County, but no record can be found that they are now worked there.

      “In Bull. No. 38, p. 100, is a record of this limestone belt as worked in Kern County in 1906.  On page 367 of the same bulletin are data suggesting that it was, at that time, worked in Los Angeles County.  In R. XIII, 1896, p. 629, is a note of a marble quarry in Antelope Valley, forty miles northeast of Lancaster.  This is clearly incorrect, as the limestone above mentioned lies northwest of Lancaster.

    • Neenach (near), Kern County, California – the Antelope Valley Marble Quarry  (Marble)  Mines and Mineral Resources of Los Angeles County, Orange County, Riverside County, Frederick James Hamilton Merrill, California State Mining Bureau, California State Printing Office, 1917, pp. 21.  (This publication is available on Google Full View Books.)

      Building Materials - Building Stone - Marble

      “No stone of this class has lately been worked in Los Angeles County, though there is a record of a Southern California Marble Company with a quarry operated near Neenach by John Rebman of Los Angeles.  This record cannot now be verified as Mr. Rebman has moved to Arizona.”

    • Neenach (near), Kern County, California – Antelope Valley Marble (Marble)  Walker’s Manual of Western Corporations, Vol. 1937, pp. 947.  (The following excerpt was obtained from the Google Books’ snippet for this publication.  A description of this book is available on Google Books.)

      “Southern California Marble Company Organized under the laws of California, in 1898.  Owns in fee 113 acres in Kern County, Calif.,...Officer – Peter R. Gadd, Pres. Address - 2645 Garvey Ave., Alhambra, Calif. Capital (May 15, 1937).”

    • Kern County, California - Antelope Valley Marble (Marble) (Excerpt from “Mineral Resources of Kern County, California,” by W. B. Tucker, R. J. Sampson, and G. B. Oakeshott, California Journal of Mines and Geology, pp. Vol. 45, No. 2, April 1949, pp. 203-297. Used with permission, California Department of Conservation, California Geological Survey.)

      From “Tabulated list of mines in Kern County - Nonmetals”: Ref. No.: 323; Name of mine: Antelope Valley Marble; Owner (name and address): Southern California Marble Co., San Francisco, Calif. (last known); Location: Sec. 2, T. 9 N., R. 17 W., S.B.M.; Mineral product: Marble; Remarks and references: Idle. Report 6 pt. 1, p. 13; Report 13, p. 629; Report 14, p. 520; Report 25, p. 73; Bulletin 38, p. 100.

    • Neenach (near), Kern County, California – Antelope Valley Marble (Marble)  The excerpt below is from “Mines and Mineral Deposits of Los Angeles County,” by Thomas E. Gay, Jr., Assistant Mining Geologist, California State Division of Mines, in California Journal of Mines and Geology, Vol. 50, Nos. 3 and 4, July - October 1954, pp. 467-709. (Manuscript submitted for publication October 6, 1953.)

      Marble (in Los Angeles County)

      “No stone of this class has lately been worked in Los Angeles County, though there is a record of a Southern California Marble Company with a quarry operated near Neenach by John Rebman of Los Angeles. This record can not now be verified as Mr. Rebman has moved to Arizona.”

    • Antelope Canyon, Kern County, California – the Antelope Canyon Group Metasedimentary Rocks.  The excerpt below is from Geology of the Eastern Tehachapi Mountains and Late Cretaceous-Early Cenozoic tectonics of the southern Sierra Nevada Region, Kern County, California, by David Judson Wood (1997) Dissertation (Ph.D.), California Institute of Technology.

      “The eastern Tehachapi gneiss complex is composed of two different sequences of metasedimentary rocks that have been intruded by three generations of plutonic rocks. The Brite Valley group metasedimentary rocks consist largely of pelites and graphitic quartzite with subordinate marble. The Antelope Canyon group metasedimentary rocks consist of a lower section composed mostly of thinly laminated dirty quartzite overlain by an upper section of marble....”

    • Neenach (near), Kern County, California – the Antelope Valley Marble Quarry (Marble) 

      The following photographs were contributed by Peter Gadd, whose grandfather, Peter R. Gadd, acquired the Antelope Valley Marble Quarry property in the late 1930s.  Marble from the Antelope Valley Marble Quarry was used in Los Angeles and San Francisco during the 1890s to early 1900s.  The last known time the quarry was in operation was in 1904. 

      I have placed Peter Gadd’s description of the photos below. If you have any information on the quarry, please contact Peter Gadd or me, Peggy B. Perazzo.

      “In the photos, you will see the ‘headworks,’ a timber tripod that still stands that was used to lift the marble into the wagons for transport down the hill.  The marble was hand split and you can see the hand driven spikes and wedges used to separate the marble into transportable pieces.  Very pretty marble – white with red streaks. In the 1930’s the name was changed to the Southern California Marble Company, owned by my grandfather, Peter R. Gadd.”

      Antelope Valley Marble Quarry, Kern County, CA Antelope Valley Marble Quarry, Kern County, CA Antelope Valley Marble Quarry, Kern County, CA

       

       

       

      Antelope Valley Marble Quarry, Kern County, CA Close-up photo of the marble in the Antelope Valley Marble Quarry, Kern County, CA Close-up photo spikes in the wall of the Antelope Valley Marble Quarry, Kern County, CA

       

       

      This photo shows the spikes that were hand driven into the marble to separate it into transportable blocks.

  • Spadra, Kern County, California - the Pomona Lime, Cement, and Stone Company Quarry and Kiln (Lime & Kiln) (From The Structural and Industrial Materials of California, Bulletin No. 38, California, State Mining Bureau, San Francisco, California, 1906.)

    "Pomona Lime, Cement, and Stone Company, Pomona, has a quarry in a body of crystalline limestone at Spadra, on the San Pedro, Los Angeles and Salt Lake Railroad, about 4 miles west of Pomona. This limestone is burned in a kiln close to the quarry."

  • Tehachapi (south of), Kern County, California - Kern Development Syndicate Sandstone Quarries (Sandstone) (From The Structural and Industrial Materials of California, Bulletin No. 38, California, State Mining Bureau, San Francisco, California, 1906.)

    "Kern Development Syndicate Quarries, in Sec. 14, T. 32 S., R. 34 E., M. D. M.; Kern Development Syndicate, 202 Wilcox Building, Los Angeles, owner; Robert Lewis, manager. These quarries are 6 miles south of Tehachapi and 3 miles from Erie station, on the southern Pacific and Santa Fe railroads, and 112 miles from Los Angeles. The sandstone is of many colors - green, blue, red, tan, and drab. The formation lies at an angle of about 10 degrees, and varies in thickness from 3 to 30 feet. It is unlimited quantity, covering several sections of land, all owned by this company. The Pasadena Library building, and the Date and Fish blocks of Los Angeles, were constructed of stone from these quarries."

    Ill. No. 56. Green Sandstone Quarry of the Kern Development Syndicate, Kern County. Green Sandstone Quarry of the Kern Development Syndicate, Kern County
    Ill. No. 57. Red Sandstone, Kern County. Kern Development Syndicate. Red Sandstone, Kern County. Kern Development Syndicate.
    Ill. No. 59. Sandstone Quarry, Kern County. Kern Development Syndicate. Sandstone Quarry, Kern County. Kern Development Syndicate.
    • Tehachapi (south of), Kern County, California - Sandstone Deposit & and Kern Development Syndicate Sandstone Quarry (Sandstone) (Excerpt from Report XIV of the State Mineralogist - Mines and Mineral Resources of Portions of California, Chapters of State Mineralogist's Report - Biennial Period 1913-1914, Part IV. "The Counties of Fresno, Kern, Kings, Madera, Mariposa, Merced, San Joaquin, Stanislaus," by G. Chester Brown, Field Assistant (field work in August and September, 1914), California State Mining Bureau, San Francisco, California, 1916, pp. 427-634.)

      "A large quantity of sandstone is found a few miles south of Tehachapi, and in San Emigdio Canyon, the former deposit being worked several years ago by the Kern Development Syndicate.

      "Kern Development Syndicate Quarry, owned by the Kern Development Syndicate, of Los Angeles, consists of 140 acres in Sec. 14, T. 32 S., R. 34 E., M.D.M., 6 miles south of Tehachapi, and 3 miles from Erie Station, on the Southern Pacific and Santa Fe railroads. The sandstone is of many colors - green, blue, red, tan and drab. The formation lies at an angle of 10, and varies in thickness from 3 to 30 feet. The supply seems to be unlimited. The stone used in the construction of the Pasadena library building, and the Date and Fish blocks of Los Angeles. Quarry idle.

      "Bible.: Bull. 38, pp. 128 and 370."

    • Tehachapi (south of), Kern County, California - Kern Development Syndicate Quarries (From The Structural and Industrial Materials of California, Bulletin No. 38, California, State Mining Bureau, San Francisco, California, 1906.)

      "Kern Development Syndicate Quarries, in Sec. 14, T. 32 S., R. 34 E., M. D. M.; Kern Development Syndicate, 202 Wilcox Building, Los Angeles, owner; Robert Lewis, manager. These quarries are 6 miles south of Tehachapi and 3 miles from Erie station, on the southern Pacific and Santa Fe railroads, and 112 miles from Los Angeles. The sandstone is of many colors - green, blue, red, tan, and drab. The formation lies at an angle of about 10 degrees, and varies in thickness from 3 to 30 feet. It is unlimited quantity, covering several sections of land, all owned by this company. The Pasadena Library building, and the Date and Fish blocks of Los Angeles, were constructed of stone from these quarries."

  • Tehachapi (east of), Kern County, California - the Jameson Lime Company Quarry and Kilns (Limestone & Kilns) (From The Structural and Industrial Materials of California, Bulletin No. 38, California, State Mining Bureau, San Francisco, California, 1906.)

    "Jameson Quarry, Jameson Lime Company, Tehachapi, owner. On the north side of the great Tehachapi Valley is a broad belt of limestone that forms the bordering hills of the valley. The quarry is located in a small cañon about half a mile from the border of the valley. The hillside on which the quarry is located is 400 feet or more in height, and shows limestone outcroppings all the way to the top. The opening from which the stone is taken at present (July, 1904) is about 100 feet above the bottom of the cañon, and several other smaller openings have been made at different heights on the hill. The hill is apparently all limestone, except a few small clay seams in places and some chalcedonic chert near the middle of the slope. The slope on the south end of the hill and the talus slope below contain a great quantity of chert fragments which are remnants from the weathered limestone, and appear as a rusty brown mantle on the surface.

    "The limestone is coarsely crystallized and of a prevailingly blue color, but portions of the deposit are white and in places white and blue banded. The rock is much fractured and weathered on the surface. The limestone, as exposed over a belt more than half a mile in width and at least several hundred feet in thickness, with practically no overburden, shows an unlimited available supply.

    "Two modern kilns, constructed in the summer of 1903, are in operation. The lime is burned mostly with oil, but some wood is used. It is put in barrels at the kiln and transported by wagon to the railway at Tehachapi."

    Ill. No. 26. Jameson Lime Company's Kilns, Tehachapi, Kern County. Jameson Lime Company's Kilns, Tehachapi, Kern County.
    • Tehachapi (east of), Kern County, California - Jameson Lime Company (Lime & Limestone) (Excerpts from Report XIV of the State Mineralogist - Mines and Mineral Resources of Portions of California, Chapters of State Mineralogist's Report - Biennial Period 1913-1914, Part IV. "The Counties of Fresno, Kern, Kings, Madera, Mariposa, Merced, San Joaquin, Stanislaus," by G. Chester Brown, Field Assistant (field work in August and September, 1914), California State Mining Bureau, San Francisco, California, 1916, pp. 427-634.)

      "Jameson Lime Company owns an extensive deposit of limestone in the west half of Sec. 14, T. 32 S., R. 33 E., M.D.M., about 2 miles east of Tehachapi. These holdings, consisting of 320 acres, are controlled by J. W. Jameson, of Taft, and an excellent grade of lime is produced. The limestone is in part coarsely crystallized, and blue to white in color. The belt is at least 2500 feet wide and several hundred feet thick, with practically no overburden. The deposit has been worked for twenty years. Limestone is burned in modern kilns, having a daily capacity of 40 barrels each. Oil is used for fuel, costing 50 cents per barrel. Plant is operated about six months during the year, ten men being employed.

      "Bibl.: Bull. No. 38, p. 70. The Structural and Industrial Materials of California, issued by California State Mining Bureau."

    • Tehachapi (northeast of), Kern County, California - Jameson Lime Company (Limestone & Lime Kilns) (Excerpt from "Limestone in California," by Clarence A. Logan, California Journal of Mines and Geology, Vol. 43, No. 3, July 1947, California Division of Mines, San Francisco, California, pp. 175-357. Used with permission, California Department of Conservation, California Geological Survey.)

      "Jameson Lime Company began work in 1903 on a large deposit of limestone in W sec. 14, T. 32 S., R. 33 E., M.D., 3 miles northeast of Tehachapi. For many years they operated two lime kilns. About 1920 the property passed to Blue Diamond Plaster Company. This is the same section where Monolith Portland Cement Company later opened a large quarry. The limestone is coarsely crystalline, generally blue but in part white, or blue and white. It is in a hill rising 400 feet, and is half a mile wide."

  • Tehachapi (east of), Kern County, California - Los Angeles Aqueduct Cement Plant (Excerpt from Report XIV of the State Mineralogist - Mines and Mineral Resources of Portions of California, Chapters of State Mineralogist's Report - Biennial Period 1913-1914, Part IV. "The Counties of Fresno, Kern, Kings, Madera, Mariposa, Merced, San Joaquin, Stanislaus," by G. Chester Brown, Field Assistant (field work in August and September, 1914), California State Mining Bureau, San Francisco, California, 1916, pp. 427-634.)

    "Los Angeles Aqueduct Plant was constructed by the city of Los Angeles to manufacture cement for use in constructing the Owens River water supply system. The holdings, consisting of 120 acres, are located in Sec. 14, T. 32 S., R. 33 E., M.D.M., at Monolith Station, 3 miles east of the town of Tehachapi (see photo No. 4.)

    "Limestone was obtained near the plant, and also from the Summit quarry. An ample supply of clay was extracted from a pit near the works. The plant has a daily capacity of 1250 tons, operated by electricity from Pacific Light and Power Corporation."

    Photo No. 4. Cement plant at Monolith, erected by City of Los Angeles. Cement plant at Monolith, erected by City of Los Angeles.
  • Tehachapi, Kern County, California - Snider & Co. (Lime) (From The Structural and Industrial Materials of California, Bulletin No. 38, California, State Mining Bureau, San Francisco, California, 1906. No other information is given.)
  • Tehachapi (south of), Kern County, California - Summit Lime Company (formerly known as the Union Lime Company (Limestone & Lime Kilns) (Excerpt from Report XIV of the State Mineralogist - Mines and Mineral Resources of Portions of California, Chapters of State Mineralogist's Report - Biennial Period 1913-1914, Part IV. "The Counties of Fresno, Kern, Kings, Madera, Mariposa, Merced, San Joaquin, Stanislaus," by G. Chester Brown, Field Assistant (field work in August and September, 1914), California State Mining Bureau, San Francisco, California, 1916, pp. 427-634.)

    "Summit Lime Company, formerly known as the Union Lime Company, owns 640 acres, patented in Sec. 35, T. 12 N., R. 15 W., S.B.M., about 3 miles south of Tehachapi. F. O. Wyman, president; W. O. North, secretary; C. W. Shoff, superintendent; Home office, 313 Heney Building, Los Angeles. Trade name, 'Blue Summit Lime.' The limestone occurs in heavy beds, with a strike of N. 75 W., and varies in color from white to light blue. It is all crystallized, in some places coarse grained, and elsewhere fine grained. The quarry is 300 feet long and 300 feet deep (circa 1914), the rock being conveyed to the Kilns by an automatic tram. The company operates four kilns at the deposit, and four near Tehachapi, in Sec. 21, T. 32 S., R. 33 E., M.D.M. (see photo No. 12). The limestone is hauled from the quarry to the Tehachapi plant, 3 miles, with eight-horse teams. Total capacity of the two plants is 560 barrels. Oil used for fuel. Output in 1912 was 120,000 barrels. Fifty men employed. Product sold in southern California and in Arizona.

    "Bibl.: Report XIII, p. 628; Bull. No. 38, p. 71."

    Photo 12. Summit Lime Company's Plant at Tehachapi. Summit Lime Company's Plant at Tehachapi.
  • Tehachapi (southwest of), Kern County, California – the Tehachapi Mountain Park – Marble and Limestone Deposits & nearby Quarries  (Marble & Limestone)

    (excerpt from the web site)  “...Marble and Limestone Scattered throughout the Oak Flat Campgrounds are marble boulders. Although neither marble or limestone were found in commercial amounts in Tehachapi Mountain Park, great quantities of marble were cut from quarries, and limestone was burned in kilns only short distances away. Lime led F. O. Wyman to develop the Summit Lime Company just east of Tehachapi Mountain Park. These materials went onto the fronts of buildings springing up throughout California in the 1870’s.”

  • Tehachapi Valley (south side), Kern County, California - the Union Lime Company Quarry and Kilns (Limestone) (From The Structural and Industrial Materials of California, Bulletin No. 38, California, State Mining Bureau, San Francisco, California, 1906.)

    "Union Lime Company, 203 San Pedro street, Los Angeles; A. L. Foster, Tehachapi, superintendent. The quarries are on the south side of the valley. The limestone occurs in heavy beds, with more or less inclusions of schist. The biotite mica in the schist is frequently badly disintegrated and stains the adjoining limestone with iron rust. The rocks are sharply folded and much shattered, so that large dimension stone is not available. The limestone is all crystallized; in some places coarse-grained and elsewhere fine-grained. It varies from white to light blue in color, the prevailing coloring being a bluish gray. In one place in the quarry of the Union Lime Company the stone is finely banded, blue and white, with a fine, compact, saccharoidal texture. It might be quarried with profit to a limited extent, in slabs of several square feet, utilizing the fragments for the limekiln. These slabs could be used for interior decoration and for cabinet and panel work.

    "The limestone lies apparently in a closely compressed syncline, which has a general trend or strike about N. 75 W. Both strike and dip vary in direction as well as in angle.

    "There are several quarry openings scattered along the hillside over a distance of half a mile or more. In one of the largest is a quarry face of about 300 feet which is worked at several levels. The stone is quarried by blasting and is run from the quarry to the kilns on tram-cars. It is needless to add that there is an unlimited amount of limestone available at this locality.

    "There are at least two other ledges of limestone south of the Union Lime Company's quarry, one of which, about one mile south in a side canon to the west, was quarried some years ago and the lime burned in a pot-kiln at the quarry. The limestone at this point is only about 10 feet thick and dips 45 N. 40 W., which soon carried it so deep into the hill that it became expensive removing the overburden. The associated rocks are granite, schist, and porphyry."

    Ill. No. 28. Quarry and kilns of the Union Lime Co., Tehachapi, Kern County. Quarry and kilns of the Union Lime Co., Tehachapi, Kern County.
    • Tehachapi Valley (south edge of), Kern County, California - Union Lime Company (Limestone Quarries & Lime Kilns) (Excerpt from "Limestone in California," by Clarence A. Logan, California Journal of Mines and Geology, Vol. 43, No. 3, July 1947, California Division of Mines, San Francisco, California, pp. 175-357. Used with permission, California Department of Conservation, California Geological Survey.)

      "Union Lime Company whose last known address was 1326 North Maryland Avenue, Glendale, but which was suspended as of March 5, 1937, for many years held 1720 acres, patented, in and adjoining sec. 35, T. 12 N., R. 15 W., S.B., 3 to 4 miles south of Tehachapi. The company was the largest lime producer in the county and was in operation at least as early as 1896 and as lessee of Summit Lime Company reported production up to 1928. They operated as many as eight lime kilns with a total capacity of 560 barrels a day and a crew of 50 men. The continuous kilns in early days were fired by oak wood which was abundant locally, but toward the end of operations natural gas was used. The last four kilns received 45 tons of sorted limestone in an 8-hour shift. These kilns were near the quarry and a lime hydrate plant with a capacity of 8 to 9 tons a day was located at Tehachapi.

      "The limestone deposit is 4000 feet long by about 500 feet thick. It is thought to be in a compressed syncline in granodiorite. It is interbedded with (biotite ?) mica schist and the two have been considerably crushed, which caused increased quarrying cost. The deposit is at the south edge of Tehachapi Valley and the main Garlock fault is about 3 miles southeast, so there may possibly be a fault wedge partly occupied by the limestone. It is a high-calcium, finely to coarsely crystalline, white to bluish limestone, and the lime made from it was widely and favorably known, as the district was the principal source of lime for southern California for many years. The limestone is said to have carried about 98 percent CaCO3 and 2 percent SiO2.

      "Several quarries were worked, one of which had a face 300 feet high."

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