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Excerpts from

The Sixteenth Annual Report
of theUnited States Geological Survey
Part IV.-Mineral Resources of the United States, 1894
Nonmetallic Products

Department of the Interior, United States Geological Survey
Government Printing Office , Washington, D.C., 1895

(The entire book has not been entered on this web site;
only the chapter entitled, "Stone," is included here. Peggy. B. Perazzo)



By William C. Day.


Title Pages

Title Page US Geological Survey 1894 - Stone (1) Title Page US Geological Survey 1894 - Stone (2)


Table of Contents - Chapter on "Stone," by William C. Day

Value of various kinds of stone produced in 1893 and 1894 436
Value of stone produced in 1894, by States 437
The granite Industry 438
  The term "granite" as used in this report 438
  Components of granite 439
  Classification of United States granites 439
  Geographical distribution of the various classes of granite 441
  Methods of quarrying, cutting, and polishing granite 441
  Methods of quarrying granite 446
  Structure of granite in place 446
  Opening the quarry 447
  Blasting 448
  Methods of cutting, polishing, and ornamenting granite 450
  Granite for building purposes 452
  Granite for street work 452
  Paving blocks 452
  Curbing and basin heads 454
  Other uses 454
  Granite for cemetery, monumental and decorative purposes 454
  Polished granite 455
  Carved granite 456
  Value of the granite produce, by States 457
  Value of granite paving blocks made in 1894, by States 457
  Granite industry in the Various States 458
  Arkansas 458
  California 458
  Colorado 458
  Connecticut 459
  Delaware 459
  Georgia 459
  Maine 459
  Maryland 459
  Massachusetts 459
  Minnesota 460
  Missouri 460
  Montana 460
  New Hampshire 460
  New Jersey 460
  New York 460
  North Carolina 461
  Oregon 461
  Pennsylvania 461
  Rhode Island 461
  South Carolina 461
  Vermont 461
  Virginia 462
  Wisconsin 462
The marble industry 462
  Value of the marble product, by States 463
  Marble industry in the various States 464
  California 464
  Georgia 464
  Maryland 467
  New York 467
  Oregon 468
  Tennessee 468
  Vermont 469
  Methods of quarrying and manufacturing marble 471
The slate industry 473
  Uses to which slate is put 473
  Methods of quarrying slate 474
  Manufacture of milled stock 475
  Slate product and its value, by States 476
  Slate industry in the various states 477
  California 477
  Georgia 477
  Maine 478
  Maryland 478
  New Jersey 478
  New York 478
  Pennsylvania 478
  Vermont 480
  Virginia 481
  Historical data 481
The sandstone industry 482
  Nature and varieties of sandstone 482
  Composition of sandstone as shown by analyses of samples 483
  Uses to which sandstone is put 484
  Value of the sandstone product, by States 484
  Sandstone industry in the various States 486
  Alabama 486
  Arkansas 486
  California 486
  Colorado 486
  Connecticut 486
  Georgia 486
  Idaho 486
  Illinois 486
  Indiana 486
  Iowa 487
  Kansas 487
  Kentucky 487
  Maryland 487
  Massachusetts 487
  Michigan 487
  Minnesota 487
  Missouri 488
  Montana 488
  New Jersey 488
  New York 488
  Ohio 491
  Pennsylvania 491
  South Dakota 491
  Texas 492
  Utah 492
  Virginia 492
  Washington 492
  West Virginia 492
  Wisconsin 492
  Wyoming 492
The limestone industry 492
  Nature, origin, and uses of limestone 492
  Value of limestone products, by State 493
  Limestone industry in the various States 495
  Alabama 495
  Arizona 495
  Arkansas 495
  California 496
  Colorado 496
  Connecticut 496
  Florida 496
  Georgia 496
  Idaho 496
  Illinois 497
  Indiana 498
  Iowa 499
  Notes on Iowa building stones, by H. Foster Bain 500
  Kansas 503
  Kentucky 506
  Maine 507
  Maryland 507
  Massachusetts 507
  Michigan 507
  Minnesota 507
  Missouri 508
  Montana 508
  Nebraska 508
  New Jersey 508
  New Mexico 508
  New York 508
  Ohio 509
  Pennsylvania 509
  Rhode Island 509
  South Carolina 509
  South Dakota 509
  Tennessee 509
  Texas 510
  Utah 510
  Vermont 510
  Virginia 510
  Washington 510
  West Virginia 510
  Wisconsin 510

Soapstone, by Edward W. Parker.

Occurrence 511
Uses 511
Production 512
Fibrous talc 512

1 Sixteenth Annual Report of the United States Geological Survey, Part 4, Mineral Resources of the United States, 1894. pg. 436 footnote: To Mr. William A. Raborg, of the United States Geological Survey, I am especially indebted for the intelligence and unremitting zeal with which he has cooperated in the difficult work of securing and tabulating the statistics of this report.

It is almost unnecessary to state that the statistical data of this report are obtained by direct individual correspondence with the stone producers of the United States. To the thousands of quarrymen who have courteously and promptly replied to the inquiries addressed to them in connection with this and former reports, my grateful acknowledgements are due. The feeling of cooperation shown by quarrymen in contributing to the value of the report by their replies, and the interest which they have always shown in the published results, make the duty of distributing among them copies of this article gratifying one.

In the preparation of this report I have been aided by a number of the technological articles and items which have appeared from time to time in the journal "Stone," and which are elsewhere individually credited, and also by the courteous cooperation of the editor of that journal in calling the attention of stone producers to the importance of replying promptly and fully to the inquiries addressed to them.

In the consideration of the constituent minerals of the granite rocks, I have followed in general, the classifications adopted in the Tenth Census Report on the Building Stones of the United States.

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